Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Thursday, October 26, 2017

The Rabbit Patrol and more at Teotihucan

 Some of the Disciplines of the Teotihuacan University.

[10] A Surgeon on his way to a new
patient.and [11]
An inspector for water-controlled usage
[7] May be a choral group with acrobatics.
[8] A seller medicinal red wood for medical problems..

For Mexico, education for the men was and still is a major endeavor. Women have been added over the years and they have done an excellent job with archaeology and anthropology.

However, the Rabbit Patrol is a much needed service. A drunk on the street is not for one man to handle. Hard liquor can make a man stronger than an ox, even though he is a calm, weaker man when he is sober. So the Rabbit Control would call for help when needed as in the picture below: A drunken rip-roaring song telling the world, either he lost his great love, or his wife tossed him out because he was getting ornery.  Or maybe he just tripped and fell and could not get up, so decided he would sing a song anyway. 

The Rabbit Patrol
with one calling for more help [Bottom, Left]

The drawing comes from Atetelco, Teotihucan. The first time I saw this scenario was in a pre-1994 translation of the Codex Ramirez.  The man on his back had curly blond hair; the inference having his heart cut out, as a sacrifice on an Aztec altar. An Aztec-scribe-prisoner making a statement? It seems to have been Independent Invention or just wishful thinking on the part of the scribe.

The next time I saw it in a book or in a magazine, in full color, was when an Aztec sacrifice was having his heart held up by the priest, and those holding the man down were about to toss him down the already bloody steps of the pyramid-temple.  The temple, knife and blood was added but the layout was the same.
Addition and Subtraction
Bars and Dots

Math had to begin with the basics of Addition and Subtraction. when the process with bars and dots was completed, then the more complex math was used (as noted with teacher at the top pointing to a different type the students would be learning next.

A simple discipline as Botany and Agriculture needed counting skills is a land where fruit trees and corn, beans and other edibles abound.  Water control and sluices were necessary part of such work.

Astronomy was more complex

This set came from the wall murals of Atetelco
in Teotihuacan
Star measurements were made with forms similar to the Chinese Observatory structures at Beijing and a Jaipur, India. Star watching information then could be tracked anywhere in the world. Or even as directionals on land.

Thursday, October 19, 2017

Aztec University: Star Measures

This set came from the wall murals of Atetelco
in Teotihuacan

At the University of Teotihuacan, DF. one can study astronomy and probably a form of physics.
This lesson .appears to have three aspects.  Finding the stars in the sky, then measuring them on the ground.  The second and third (B and C) are similar to the layout on the ground at Beijing  Observatory, China. However, I believe their version was only to measure the daylight hours during the seasons.

These two have more of an affinity for the version in Japur Observatory in India.  The double pool at one end with measuring markings. Were these lessons for the pre-comet fall-out, or was it for the post-comet event displayed on the Aztec Calendar Stone.  So many polities make a small lesson plan into a greater lesson to learn.

The professors at Teotihuacan are displayed on the walls of other buildings. Their speech scrolls tell the students what is to be studied in their classes.

Astro-Physics was just one of many classes given in this university system.Not only finding the stars in the sky, but also measuring them on land with specific measuring pools and long markess sumilar to those found at the Observatory at Jaipur, India..

Lessons such as Astronomy, not only to locate stars, 
but also to measure them to the ground in pools of water
 similar to Jaipur, India. Their experts were also designated to teach.

From tracing was by Saburo Sugiyama of
the University of Arizona
The icon has a dog with a tassel, star firm in his headdress, the Tlaloc eyeware and knives not feathers on his outfit, he may be explaining the "rain of resin" or of "turpentine," explained in the Popol Vuh of the Maya.  The Tlaloc eyeware, is to illustrate his knowledge of the Owl Lady in the center of the mural whois pouring out knowledge from her fingertips.

West Wall: Storm God with single fang in mouth.
He carries a lightning bolt in right hand, plant forms in left,
raindrops from flower neckpiece.
The two above, both have multiple
star forms on the their headdresses and clothing.
Speech scrolls seems to illustrate stars and shells.
with plenty. if sand in scrolls,
Walking to check Night Beach erosion, maybe?
Possibilities are all described as iconic jobs on the wall murals.. The destruction was extensive. and only guesswork is possible., except for the 31 or so employment illustrations themselves. Surgery, a nserious need in a land where Machetes were used to clear land for agriculture. Doctors were needed just like any city. Botanical medicines were dispensed by university trained professor/physicians. If you want to call them Shamans, that is perfecctly all right. As long as their education was to cure people.
Emergency Surgery and Medicines

On the other hand, without clean water, people living in a water-based city would have a very serious problem. Night soils and trash were collected daily; aqueducts were built to bring fresh water into the area. It was essential that the water for lake cities be kept clean and flowing normally. No hidden standing puddles for mosquitoes. Agents were trained to test the water and make sure it was potable.
Potable Fresh Water for the City

Monday, October 16, 2017

Can a person write 2 Mondays; THEN add a Tuesday?

I thought the Trecena added only 1 Day!

                                                          Boy, was I wrong!!!

The Aztec University system illustrated many large and small jobs that men could perform; Teaching mathematics, history, astronomy; surgery. acrobats,actors, even policemen who could subdue rowdy drunks during the night. It included, fresh-water "engineers," and hortoculturalists for a total of at least 31 different disciplines to be studied at Teotihucan.

Astronomy and Math go together in our world, but not in the Maya. Each has its own method of identification.  Math, of course, is easier to the visual illustrated on the wall
Lessons in the Discipline Mathematics
and Possible Trecena concepts.
Thie group above appears have two teachers. One illustrates bars for the number desired [5 X 2 = 10].. The other. [a  TA in our school system] who just confirmed five was created by a student. The TA then inferred to the student, they should add their two fives together and add two "one's". He is indicating the object under his hand, a close duplicate of the one above his head appears to be the goal.

The TA explains that one dot is for the illustrated glyph by the main teacher above him with which the student can apply the math to astronomy indicated by the beauiful rose [nebula in the sky] which will connect to other disciplines such as "Slash and Burn" agriculture. 

Karl Taube in his paper, called the Maya agricultural method "swiddin." [See reference belowA student as he learns his mathematics can deal with many other disciplines, i.e. the value of objects for barter, creating a home with correct orientation to the stars, marketing one's produce or pottery, etc.

A twelve is inferred by the two added dots between the five of the TA and that of the student. A third was either forthcoming or it was deliberately left out as not yet part of the lesson. The counting process called the Trecena was used for a truncated work schedule that applies to milpa horticulture. It is not only necessary to own three milpa plots, but also to calculate his weekly procedures to keep all three milpas fertile. 

[The count must be calculated in a very complex pattern {hence truncated to four days per week to avoid too many distractions}  The Independent Invention scenario below is based upon modern problems for students who are not accustomed to printed book-learning.]

The horizontal layout of the Trecena carries the correct procedure [with 1-IMIX as the beginning of the first WEEK of the first MONTH of the year 0 POP [which Rome iniciated], in 1583-4 for the Mesoamerican calendars so as to make them more like the European. The Euros would also have less trouble following the native calendars.

However, When 1583, Rome introduced the IMIX, as the first day of the first month, the structure of the calendar intended, was altered.  An error occurred in the 52-week cycle. The artist put KIMI on the 45th-week in the correct position and KIMI in the EB position of week 46 to show the calendar would have an incorrect ending for 52 weeks when IMIX is the first day of the first month of the year. It must be removed for the four-day weeks to come out correctly. 

The second set of 26-weeks are a disaster. Nothing is correct, even though all are in place, except for 45th and 46th week columns as noted above. The second KIMI so close to the original indicates that the native who was ordered to redraw this calendar knew there would be a bad ending and refused to do any more than 51 weeks. He left the rest as blanks. The problem could be solved by adding a week starting with BEN in the empty space between the last week glyphs and the empty cartouches. The second set of 26-weeks would then be completed correctly, but only for the 52-weeks in the 360-year. I believed it should have begun with the week starting with IK and neatly end the 26 weeks in IMIX.  

I was quite proud of myself for figuring it all out, especially with Karl Taube's help about the agriculture process. Then, one day, mumbling the, by now familiar IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN mantra to myself for the hundredth time; I suddenly realized I had repeated the first line of the vertical version as the thirteenth line. Hey, that is a neat program, a pre-computer "constant loop."

I tried to convince my readers that this was a valid "loop."   As usual, no one even dreamed that I was serious. The Mesamericanos could never have created such a "computer" program so many centuries before our magic computers became a reality. Anyway, the mantra, I had been repeating to myself, was only one of many having four different names across the mesoamerican world. It was so much easier to use only the numbers. 

Even calculus formulae used MOD-13 constantly for calculating meso-dates. Chart after chart was created, years became garbled. They never seemed to reach into recorded European years after the Conquest.

Then one day, I was browsing into year-bearer charts for the upteenth time, eyes glazing
over, with the multiple changes. . . .I gave up. The 1-13 sequences made no sense at all. Suddenly, it dawned on me that the number 13 read exactly the same as number 01. 

Then, why was 01 the next number in line. One cannot have a running loop with two repeats in a row. That would meant A WHOLE DAY was added in the vertical Trecena every time the number 13 was counted, followed by another 01 sequence

really thought I was learning things after solving the horizontal Trecenta, that was another plus for my argument.  But, yet, something was still wrong. Days went by, I prepared a presentation, but it bombed and the Trecena had to be deleted because of lack of time. I finished my little speech on the last slide using the Madrid Serpent pages, informing all that the paper copy was correct for a horizontal count of the Trecena for each of the twelve years counted in each of the 01 to 13 count.  I figured if I had so much trouble even trying to talk properly; it was not what I had wanted to do.

Again, I almost missed the bus. Ended up sitting next to a person I could not talk to very well: a most amazing person who had been riding the buses for two months. We ended up simplifying our conversation to mere basics for hours until we both fell asleep. Next thing I knew we had arrived in Houston, and I was almost home. It seemed like I had been gone for a year. . . . a year?. . . .Wait, a minute. . . . .a year-bearer in the Trecena was 52 weeks of ONE YEAR in the horizontal count. 

The answer was not ONE DAY, but ONE YEAR was added to the Trecena every time the number 01 followed the 13. No wonder, the years were weird.


The Aztec/Maya Elite understood that many farmers were unable to read so instead of 
creating a 30- day/month for their 360-day year, they left  out Saturdays and Sundays of all the 52 weeks. The Borgia Codex, on the other hand, did 8.pages with the 260-day Trecena separated from the 7-day weeks of the newer 365.25-day.

It was inferred the 260-days were actually 26 years or half a HAAB or half of a 52-year cycle. 

If one takes the horizontal 52-week Trecena into account----as a working schedule for farmers who could not read----then the 52-year cycle is "Independent Invention," no more, no less. This ends the 01 to 13 nonsense.  The 13 count only means 13-weeks per season. Therefore, I must conclude there is a lot of work to be done straightening out the real calendar of Mesoamerica.
Taube, Karl, titled "The Classic Maya Maize God: A Reappraisal"  [In  Fifth Round Table, Pre-Columbian Art. Ed.: Merle Greene [1985, 171-181], San Francisco, California.] 

Gates,William, (1978) An Outline Dictionary of the Maya Glyphs. Dover edition.

Borgia Codex, Dover Edition.

Madrid Trio-Cortesano Codex