Essays: Stars of Tamoanchan

Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Monday, February 19, 2018

A Second Look: Madrid Codex

A Second Look: Madrid Codex

D. M. Urquidi

Fig. 01: First and last segment of the Serpent Calendar Pages in the Madrid Codex.
M-13 to M-18

In 2014, the first and last pages of the Serpent Calendar, was what I thought I had
solved completely. Especially with the One-IMIX in the first column, together with
the two KIMI’s {Death} which appeared in columns 45 and 46. One IMIX was dated
for the Maya Calendar system

The dates were pre-dated to Diego de Landa’s manuscripts dated from 1549 to-1579.
In 1978, Williams Gates published a Dover edition of his translation in a chapter
called “Yucatan,” with notes which included his note about the “common 52-year
cycle” of the Mesoamerican calendars, referred to by de Landa.

Gates also inferred de Landa made no mention of a 30-day calendar month, even
though it was necessary to use 30-days since the year was once 360-days within
each year of 52 weeks. [Gates, (1978,j Sec. XXXIV, 59)

The daily difference when the 5.24 days were added made such a small change
per day that the number of weeks stayed the same. During a year the difference
was only 0.015 of a degree per day.

So where did I go wrong? Stating that a 52-year computation is wrong is one thing,
but proving it is another. And apparently, I was unable to make a strong enough
statement with so little information.  So the thing to do next is: go the Floyd L
ounsbury’s original article and find the “if’s” and the “maybe’s,” especially, when
there is a strong “NO” in his proposal.

Floyd left the following statement for all students to mull over and experiment with
since he knew there was no verification from the Maya corpus itself. He threw in
the 52-years, in spite of the astronomy and the 350-year that he agreed with. T
hen,he adjusted the figures that could not or would not fit the formulae he decided upon.

“The Maya left no treatises or mathematical or astronomical methods or theories.

There is no posing of a problem, proof of a therem, or statement of an algorithem----none
of trhe usual kinds of souce material for the history of science, Their writing system, if
not actually prohibitive of such disquisitions was at least conductive to brevity in the
extreme. What they left are the various end products of the application of their methods.
It is up to the students to decipher what the problems were and how they have been the
methods employed in their solution…” ”...It can hardly take the form of a history of
Maya mathematics, calendars, and astronomy.”
                  [Lounsbury, Floyd G.,  (1978. 759)] Maya Numeration, Computation, and
Calendrical Astronomy”. In. Dictionary Of Scientific Biography. New York, New York.
Charles Scribner's Sons. Volume 15, Supplement 1. 1978. P. 759-818.

In short, Floyd Lounsbury himself was the student he inferred in the above quotation.
The data that he compiled seemed to fit, except that he did not understand how the
horizontal Serpent Calendar of the Madrid Codex used the vertical Trecena
as 4 X 3 units, plus One.= 13 units.

The 52-week horizontal calendar in the Madrid Codex is only a workday calendar.
They are equal to our workday calendars which leave out Saturdays and Sundays.
Those two days are for personal or civil activities that cannot be accomplished
during:the weekends.

The only way the Serpent Calendar will mesh with the following 4-year unit, is
when the glyphs : BEN,  ET’ZNAB, AKBAL and LAMAT, in that order, are
placed in the first row of the empty cartouches.

IK:         Spring time  Slash and Burning a clearing for the milpas
MANIK: Summer time Planting and caring for the milpa maize growth
EB:        Autumn time Preparing for the Harvest and sttorage or sale of the Maize
CAVAN: Winter time, preparing for thanks to god and his/her helpers and for civil celebrations.

Each if the four horizontal years must mesh with the vertical year. The best way
to understand the horizontal version, is to number the beginning of each 20-day
unit, separate each 20-day unit, by cutting them apart; then fit them back together
according to the original page drawings; noting the way each column was drawn.

One can then see better the sequences needed for milpa care to regenerate the necessary
soil nutrients for future harvests in the same plot of ground. Then the other two
4-year vertical units are related to two other milpas to be used following the same
cycle so each plot has enough nutrients for a good harvest.

If you are not farmers, or come from a 4-H family, the above sequence for
three plots of land per household may seem like overworking the system.
However, it is a very precise procedure to regenerate the necessary nutrients
from what is a very thin layer of soil on top of bare rock.

             (More to the Madrid also called the Tro-Cortesianus Codex in the next posting.)


Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Is There a Coefficient for 13 or for 52?

Having divided a popular oefficient thought to have handled the above numbers correctly,
I discovered NO coefficient within 819 which qualified for a coefficiebtt for the 13 or for the

However, a coefficient for both 13 and 52 DOES exist,

"676 divided by 13 equals 52 and 676 divided by 52 equals 13"

It had to have been done by a computer expert.

It was very strange to find it was done by a person who not only did not own a computer,
he did not see such a wonderful machine, He was a Maya who used dots and bars
for his star observations and a seashell for a zero. He could add, subtract, multiple and
divide as easily as I can with Arabic numbers.

So with 676 we can infer: 52 weeks in a year; 26 weeks in a half a year; 13 weeks in a quarter of a year (i.e.: A season, Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn). And a New Year was a great celebration of renewal for old and young alike.

According to William Gates, mentioned in a footnote, that Diego de Landa, on page 59, the 52 year cycle was used for "mundane matters." By the time, J. Henry Phillips Jr., translated the Codex Ramirez as the 'History of the Mexicans as Told by Their Pictures," the 52-year cy  on pp oage 619'  le had expanded to also include four year, then of  a first, seccond or third 13-year count for events. 

It also tells us that no primitive entity could possible think like us; ever. And it has been proven in anthropology and archaeology over and over again. Margaret Mead did an excellent study in the Pacific islands. And there was Mr. Leaky who discovered the first proto-human, after digging up more than seven tons of earth to find the rest of the skeleton that matched the jawbone he had first kicked up on a well-worn foot path..

As I began to study the Calendar stone of the Maya/Aztec cultures, I could see the fire serpents and N, E, W, S markers, and four units, Wind, Fire rain, Water to dampen the fire rain, and Jaguars who were as hungry as humans when they decided to leave their lairs in the mountain caves. Numbers associated with those events were 676, 364, 312, and 676. These numbers only complete three Ages of the Sun. . . . . 676 each age.  The central numbers 364 and 312  are to be  found in the "The History of the Mexicans through their Paintings." (by Phillips,.1883.) It is a short translation of the Codex Ramirez.

The information I uncovered never seemed to be Ages of the Sun, instead it seems to be four events during one year. This has never been proven, and it does need further investigation.

The fact that there is  in all the versions of the Calendar Stone. I still do not understand it.   I still have questions of my own. Do any of you have any questions?

However, I do understand the MOD and COEFFICIENT process in Calculus. I had
a great teacher, who all  but pounded the sequences into my ear over the telephone.
With those two elements, I was able to understand the rest of the calculus statement.  
After turning it into a number-based problem, It was easier to understand even within
brackets, parenthesis, super and subscripts.

There was an EXCEPTION---when I saw weeks made into year-cycles----not
normal for our Earth’s 360 degree orbit or its ability to spin one degree per day
to create a 360-day orbit and a 52-week year, even with the addition of 0.015th
of a every 24 hour spin.

It also was apparent the Earth’s spin adjusted itself to make the daily degree into 1.0456
[1.015] degree without knowing calculus or the 364-day; 52 week YEAR that contains
39 divided by 13-weeks [in each of three seasons] for the “Book of Destinies.”  

Come to think of it----Earth also was a linguist-----who spoke ALL languages,
The question will be does one only add one day per week, or was it more than
five days to the Native pre-conquest week:  So, the main question here, is it
necessary to put all the Extra-ordinary inferred calculus inanother paper, or
should I assume, if you are really interested in Earth Orbital self-adjustability----do
I just show the original abbreviations with new details---because Earth’s natural
measurements are ALREADY KNOWN to our Planet Earth.

If you want to disagree; I have no problem looking another piece of the puzzle.   
If anyone can offer a better solution than bringing back the 360-degree orbit
to which Earth itself uses to stay on course, no matter how planet Earth may change.

[To Repeat the natural Earth Cycle one more time: Since the orbit of earth is
a constant 360 degrees, it was only the spin of one degree per 24 hours must
be changed. So the math should be 360 / 365.25 = 1,01458 [1.015].   Therefore,
the spin, in order to complete Earth’s 360 orbit, when the 24-hour day
was self-adjusted to  01.01458 degree for each 24-hour spin.


Rome did not have calculus during those days. They decided to separate
the five and a quarter days into a separate entity, called a Wayeb that
they implemented in 1584.  See historical note about Fra Francisco de
la Nava under “Veytia Calendar” 1975 edition of HMAI, IV, III p. 230.]

v       The veintena. Or the twenty day 5 week cycle, using only 4-days per week  of
]first second and a third year Trecena count, which should begin with Ik, and end
with Caban as entered into the 3nd column of the Madrid Codex in the following
horizontal Trecena Serpent Calendar pages. [M-13 to M-18]

[All units of the horizontal Trecena have to be completed only up to 52 weeks
so that the next 12-cycle of the Vertical Trecena fits into Manik, Eb, Caban,
Ik. [See name chart for the inference using only the number 13 here----without

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
“ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “
Some Known Changes              

In the year 1584 AD Imix was the GREGORIAN adjustment as the FIRST DAY of the first
month was named 0 POP.  Diego de Landa suggested 0-POPP in 1524 (Gates, 1987, 68).
Rome inserted these changes into the European calendar and inserted these changes into
the Mesoamerican calendar in 1583 for 1584 AD. No month names had been used before
that 1584 in the New World.

tz      Vertical Trecena inferred  only for agriculture in connection with the Madrid Horizontal
Serpent Pages where {our Saturday and Sunday} designations were ignored.
The Vertical Trecena reads as follows:

Ik (1),

Cabán,  This group is repeated three times.
[Then  Ik (13) is added to complete a continuous loop.].

          [I have separated the thirteen count into three year-segments of four-day columns.
is the year count not the trecena count to be used as  vertical Trecena  for each day
per month’ as assumed by some. This just creates a proper agricultural process for
a: burning  year’ a planting year and a fruitful harvest the first year a milpa is used  
and leaves  that milpa two years to lie fallow. These procedures are necessary
         for individual milpas to regenerate in often soil-poor conditions.
         The last row of the trecena just allows the three inferred to repeat itself.

Nevertheless, this attempt of four days per week failed to create a correct 52-week
horizontal calendar, the following
year, This inferred year is repeated; and is again repeated for the third time.
m a Calender month  any one of 18 months. [Again, 0 POP and all other months
         was a Gregorian adjustment by Rome for the New World rcalender year 0-PPop.”]
        Pop (1), Uo (2), Zip (3), Zotz (4), Tzep (5), Xul (6), Yaxkin (7), Mol (8),    
        Ch'en (9), Yax (10),  Sac (11), Ceh (12), Mac (13), Kankin (14), Moan (15),
        Pax (16), Kayeb (17), Cumhu (18),
             [Wayeb (19) Floyd's Text], (If  month has only n1, n2, n3, n4, and n5, for the
coefficient 819,
             Four different coefficients  had been compared, Each equaled 819= [If the year
n1 has 365 days, use Wayeb)], the rest of the formula inferred is to be found on
page 764, second half of column one to the end of column two on page 765. He
completed time zones and a latitude zone but only those which could equal
364 day coefficients our common denominator 819. He even indicated that
he was not completely positive of his premise.
(Lounsbury, Floyd, Circa 1974s, 760, nbr 3]]

d           day of the month, any one of the twenty days. Mod 19,  i.e. of 20 days in
        five weeks of four days each, [as found in the Madrid Codex in the Serpent
             Trecena Horizontal pages.]

  The Madrid Serpent pages list is different from common sequence usage.

        Ik (1), Akbal (2), Kan (3), Chicсhán (4), Cimi (5) Manik (6), Lamat (7),
        Muluc (8), Oc (9), Chuen (10), Eb (11), Ben (12), Ix (13), Men (14),
        Cib (15), Cabán (16), Eznab (17), Cauac (18), Ahau (19), Imix (20),

h          days of two haab's or  52 weeks = mod 360 days, [if 365, then Mod
364 +2[?] = every 6th year = 366 ]

cr       day of calendar-round expressed in terms of coordinates tr, v, and h.
         [For example “6 Etznab 11 Yax”. Floyd's original text; My input is: NO month
         names in Mesoamerican calendars until 1583 for January First, 1584.]

t         is: There were NO month. names in Mesoamerican calendars until 1583 to be
used for January First 1584
             {For rwo split mountains separated by different dates, found in the Bodley Codex,
a 360 day-year calculation is necessary for a 52-week year.]  

lc         date in the long count: expressed in Maya numerals, usually of five places, of
the following:
n5, n4, n3, n2, n1, where n1 is the number of days in the kin position, n2 is the  
number of winals, n3 the number of  tuns;  n4 the number of katuns, and n5
          the number of baktuns.  
[All of which when included in the calculation must Include 4 X 819, its inferred

Yet only 864 / 52 = 15.614 winals-days or 16 as a whole number.for their
joined conjoined] Coefficients and called a h aa b. It is  26-weeks of an
inferred half a year. [Lounsbury. p. 770.

Day-count increments are normal without month names.]
[The above definitions are just suggested changes to Floyd Lounsbury's original
calculus statements Which indicated a 52-year cycle, which is a very awkward
numeric conclusion. It makes his data a bit out of sync with the natural measurements
of orbital time of our 26-week Earth.[H AA B]                
dn        distance number: (positive or negative) to be added to a given cr or lc or both;
            expressed as a Maya coefficient for an inferred numerals for any number of pieces.

Even so, the Maya informed Morley the following about their on-going intentions for
future calendars:

Let us permit our calendar year to gain on the true year as fast as it will. We
will allow our calendar to function without change, but when we erect upon it,
in addition to the official calendar date of its dedication, a calendar correction
for that particular date. In this way, no matter what month our calendar may
register, e shall always know, whenever we erect a monument, the position of
its corresponding date in the true [Maya/Atec inferred] Trecena [Vertical and
Horizontal] year calculation.”       
 [Morley, Third Edition: 1956, Morley and Wm Gates as
Translators on pps 229-230]

The above identifies the dn as a distance number. The above quote by Morley from
his Maya informants tells us of a different purpose: That of making the dn exactly
as the same date as the primary date above it. In other words the first date is the
date formula insisted upon by Rome in 1584.  The dn date is the same day, but is
using the older calendar of the Maya population.

[See the Borgia Code x Calendar for the 364 day-year which included the 260-day count
for the Treccena in the middle.of two ugly rows created in Rome It was  finally
figured out why the Maya left out the two weekend days .It was a very accurate
work-day schedule when done to fit the Latin or Latitude or Climate] Milpa
Trecena assumed] management it managed to be for multiple harvests.
(Morley, 1956,768. Translator: Gates. Wm.)


A conclusion reached, is that, without searching for the beginnings or source should never
assume such unknown numbers are only useful, when all data pertaining to such artificial
dating methods can be used in all phases of their calendar calculations. For Example: the
almost universal use of 819, that never seems to work as a planned. chart, no matter
how many charts can be created .  

A Human was actually the creator of the original 360-calendar in eons past,
NOT a "god,"“ "Nough said.