Essays: Stars of Tamoanchan

Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Jasaw Chan K'awiil, "He Who Cleared the Sky."

Jasaw Chan K’awiil I, ‘He Who Cleared the Sky

At David Stuart’s suggestion, I decided to investigate Jasaw Chan K’awiil (tr: K’awiil  Cleared the Sky.) [Martin & Grube (2008, 52)]. Because “he had cleared the sky?” what happened before it was necessary to do so. David had his own focus for research:  4 Ahaw 8 Kumku with the 13.0,0,0,0 and the Year Bearers of the vertical Trecena calculated backwards in time.
My second question then was: When did the event before the “clearing of the sky” occur?
“When” calls forth a third question What actually happened to the land?.
It is very clear that the dates are skewed and have little relationship to other events of major importance in the world. The major fault I found was in Diego de Landa’s Calendar explanations.
In Landa’s 1566 manuscript, several statements are so confusing that it is impossible to tell which is related to what?
By the time Landa wrote calendar details, the 365.25-days were permanent and accepted as such.
“It took.....20 days x 18 + five days and six hours.  Out of these six hours they made a day every four years so that they had a 366 day-year every four years.  [Gates, 1864, 59, Dover edition 1979),
With these numbers:  20-18-5-6-4, the 365 day/year was defined correctly. Yet, why did they assume another characterization here? However, when I read 20 days times 18. The 5 days and 6 hours, in my mind, read the 20 day units times 18 = 360-days; then it switched over to 5 “weeks” and 6 “days” each week as the horizontal version of the Trecena. Both versions of the numbers read the same way i.e.: 30 x 12 = 360 day/year of the 52-week, as a 3 X 4-year sequence in the Trecena shorter vertical count.
[Since I had been going over the vertical and horizontal Trecena of the Madrid so often over the years, I began to think like the Maya who still like to duplicate their speech patterns.]
Thi strange part about de Landa’s manuscript of 1566, was when he added information about IMIX starting on July 16 (Julian Calendar) as the first day of the Maya New Year.  How come since It was instituted in 1583/4 by Rome when it was later decided [or did Landa suggest it??] for Rome to start 0-POPP as a new beginning. to creating the first month of the year as (Zero) POP using February 8, (the Gregorian  Calendar) for the first month in 1584. However, de Landa died in 1575. It was nine years later when Rome sent to mesoamericat almost all the Diego de Landa  information as a permanent change to their 360-day calendar system. Or did a new scribe insert the information into the Landa text?
POPP was then 0-POP as the first month of the 19 given for the year and One IMIX as July 16 (Julian Calendar) which was changed to July 26 of 1584 (Gregorian Calendar) as its first day of 1584 as IMIX.  (Gates, 1864, 68, Dover edition 1979)
Reviewing the Madrid serpent pages where IMIX was placed as the first day of the New Year, I discovered that the horizontal Trecena would not work with IMIX being the first day. If IK, in the next column was left as a Year-Bearer, IK completed all month sequences within a proper 52-week time frame but IMIX did not.
Landa decided to write the reason for the Year Bearers as:
Five Year Bearers X  five years for each 5-year unit of the vertical Trecena.
This would equal 25 years during each completed cycle of the Year Bearers. A footnote by Gates claimed it would throw the calendar completely out of order, which it does.   Before Landa first noted the Trecena as five weeks of four days during each week. Instead of using IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN, he started with KAN, MULUC, IX, CAUAC.(Gates, 1976, Dover edition, 60) He then proceeded to add the month names to the pseudo-calendar, beginning with the quasi-normal POP’ for July 16 connected to 12 KAN all the way to WAYEB July 11 which connected to Xma-Kaba Kin KAN cycle of the Maya with even more nonsense.
The list continued with
UO August 6-6 KAN; ZIP Aug. 21-13 KAN; SOTZ  September 14-7 KAN; TZEC October 4, 1 KAN; XUL October 24-8 KAN; YAXKIN November 13-2 KAN; MOL December 3-9 KAN; CH’ENDecenber 23-3 KAN; YAX January 12-10 KAN; SAC February 1-4 KAN; CEH February 21-11 KAN; MAC March 13-5 KAN; KANKIN April 2-12 KAN; MUAN April 22- 6 KAN; PAX May 12-13 KAN; KAYAB June 1-7 KAN; CUMHU June 21-1 KAN; to WAYEB July 11 as above. (Gates, 1976 Dover edition, 70 to 81)
Did it add up? Of course it did for a five-week; five day per week month units with a 1 to 13 count Trecena. [Note that KAN only counted as far as 13 while the months had 5-days in each week  5-week series, This as verified by Sylvanus Morely in his four edition of The Ancient Maya in 1983, 553.]  The 52-year cycle was created as a "vague year,” (1983, 554-5) It was created as a co-efficient of modern calculus and page 554 explains how the computation came into being.
At this point, there is no reason to even continue with a coefficient because the whole calculation is contrary to the natural cycle of earth’s orbit and spin.
Landa, before we forget his work, used an informant he had, who told him about the event that caused the trouble. It had occurred 300 years previous to their conversations. He also casually mentioned that the Maya count years in 20-year periods, or 13 X 20  ending in AHAU, but counting backwards on a wheel; even though the list only counted KAN as its backward trolling name. (Gates, 1864, 81)
This should have equaled 260 years, [but it seemed better to count it as 26 years X 2.] Sylvanus Morley verified the 5-days X 5-weeks cycle in his fourth edition of The Ancient Maya. (Morley, 1983, 554-5)  
Even so, the Maya informed Morley the following about their on-going intentions for future calendars
Let us permit our calendar year to gain on the true year as fast as it will. We will allow our calendar to function without change, but when we erect upon it, in addition to the official calendar date of its dedication, a calendar correction for that particular date. In this matter what month our calendar may register, we shall always know, whenever we erect a monument, the position of its corresponding date in the true year.”                 
                                                        [Morley, Third Edition: 1956, 229-230]
The statement, recorded by Morley seems to have been completely ignored. Instead it created a modern non-glyphic date a monument was completed. The so-called Distnance Number, then and now is a non-glyphic 365.25-days per year. In 1584 Rome-designated dates were to be placed after the glyphs of 360-days per year. It is not a coefficient because both are day. And it is not a Distance number because both dates are for the same day. i.e. as Julian vs. Gregorian date.
The 13 numbers were to walk vertically down against the 20-day names so none will forget to number the day names 1 to 13; then begin the 1-13 cycle again until 13 x 20  became an important 260-day cycle of good or bad fortune.
Landa gave you the process to use to verify his proposed calendar was 100% wrong. Read the “year-bearers” instead of the numbers “1 to 13.”  And when you know POP was sent to Mesoamerica as the first new month series of 18 names for the Roman year 1584, there is no backward trail to follow. The month of POP with all 18 other month names can only go forward from the time of the Conquest. Any previous date on the stelae would be counting backward by the old calendar 360-day years, but without adding or subtracting the “distance numbers.“
So, in short, I have separated all the time-honored date making methods for Maya calendars: those Diego de Landa wanted you to find for yourselves. Now, let us return to Jasaw Chan K’awiil and find out why or when he “cleared the sky.”
The DATE of the EVENT
There is no way one can find the date of the event if it was never recorded.” you will say?  I would say: “If Simon Martin and Nikolai Grube could find it, so can you.” They called it: The Lost World. It is in their book, Chronicle of the Maya Kngs and Queens,
“Lying at the western edge of the city [Tikal], the Mundo Perdido (“Lost World”), was the largest ceremonial precinct of Preclassic Tikal. A large four-sided pyramid was aligned with an eastern platform topped by a row of three temples, a configuration known as an ‘E-Group.’ Some were aligned as solar observatories and used to chart solstices and equinoxes, though many were not oriented in this way and point to a different origin.”                                           (S . Martin and N. Grube, 2000, 28-9)
The phrase:  “Some were aligned as solar observatories and used to chart solstices and equinoxes, though many were not oriented in this way and point to a different origin”  So this would mean that all E-Group solar observaories are after the event, and those out of synch with the Sun were from pre-Classic times before the event.
Not knowing the locations of these strange pyramids, I can only say the different origin would indicate the old orientation of North when earth had a 360-degree orbit when, during each 24-hours, the earth made a one degree spin.
The background for these strange differences in orientation also appear to be from a time when the​ ​"Tikal​ ​hiatus"​ ​came about between the ​late​ ​6th​ ​to​ ​late​ ​7th​ ​century when large monumental structures and public inscriptions were no longer being constructed.
Research groups searching the surrounding area for more information, found what they were looking for. In Tikal, the ruler, Dark Sun, noted a major battle lost to Calakmul with the help of Dos Pilas. He erected Stela 24 and Altar 7 with many glyphs, and although both were badly smashed, enough survived to have confirmed the final days of Tikal by end of the IXth century which although it is too late for this query, it does include the Paddler Twins on six Tikal bones carved about the event honoring the time of Jasaw Chan K’awiil I. [Simon Martin and Nikolai Grube, (2000, 52-3 and 42-3)]
Each of the six bones of Tikal have a double inscription on it.  The one contains the glyph for the Planet Venus. And the other is supposed to contain Jasaw Chan K’awiil’s single name glyph. Neither the stela nor the wooden lintel gives any indication that Jasaw has his tongue extended. But the Lintel 2 and 3. do show a huge jaguar over his head in back of the throne. He was also known as Ruler A, Ah Cacao and Sky Rain.(2000. 45)
It seems he had his tomb in front of Temple I, rich with ceremonial goods, but no date for his royal death, probably the year before his son accession to the throne of Tikal, i.e 733.
If a tomb for Animal Skull was filled with ceremonial offerings before the Flood of mud came from the bottom of the sea, then Jasaw Chan K’awiil I [or II] aka Sky Rain it would have been that of Chalchiuhtlicue] which would have indeed  “cleared the sky,”
Jasaw Chan K’awiil would be the only human who dared to take the honor of “clearing the sky” for the Lady of the Cleansing Rains. His would have been the only body placed in the tomb of Animal Skull aka the Great Sun which was cooled by the same rains. The multiple layered cotton cloth saturated with red cinnabar which covered the body lying on a bench, indicated a highly honored personage but not necessarily the one for whom the tomb had been built. The original body was probably covered with the mud and disintegrated with the previous offerings, which in turn verified Jasaw Chan’s power and grandiose intention to  “overcome” the namesake of  “Great Sun.”
Using the upper data about the dates having been skewed even as early as Diego de Landa. One must be cautious until the actual count of 26 weeks for a haab and 52 weeks for a complete year are used to count the calendar dates.
The Madrid Codex attempted to illustrate a work calendar and showed it does not have to be a full calendar.  It may only relate to the days that are necessary to accomplish the task of farming in the horizontal Trecena segment of five weeks of every month [separated from days of reverence], not month names. By putting IMIX as the first day of the year, the year does complete 52 weeks, but not the 18 months.
There is a single week that needed to be filled in but when it is, the whole calendar is off balance. It does not transition to the following year correctly. The second year of the four must fall on MANIK, while the third would reach EB, and the last would start in CABAN. The 13th year bearer would start the second segment of four year bearers with IK; and later, the third segment would again begin with IK and all three would transition to the next cycle/segment easily after a complete 52-weeks.
On the other hand, the Borgia Codex managed to create the five day-weeks neatly into 8 half pages for a total of 260 days of a Trecena count for good or bad luck days for the newly born or those needing reassurance after experiencing difficulties at home or at work. The often overlooked border at the top and buttom of the 8 pages are ignored as decorative features.
However, those two borders add up to 104-days that when added to the 260 equal 364-days of a year, with a tiny footprint to tell the reader where a 365th-day [there are several] was waiting its turn to end a normal year of 52-weeks.
In order to arrive at a wrong date that can be corrected is to go back to Great Sun Hawk Skull also known as Mahk’ina Bird Skull or Feather Skull. (K’INICH [MUA’N] JOL). BIRD is an indication of a flying round object; which Feather is a specific AZTEC glyph for “FIRE.” He died 11 AHAW 13 POP, 23 May 733? and his earthly “ruler-son” was Jaguar Paw aka Yik’in Chan K’awiil [“he who darkened the sky”] ascended to the throne in 734. Hence, the date of the event could have been 733.
Another strange tomb was set up in front of Temple 34, Burial 10. It had been dug out of rock for Yax Nuun Aiin aka Curl Snout. who died about; June 17, 404?  Now, Curl Snout, as a birth name may indicate when the stars of the Sky Ball Game were eaten. The event was illustrated twice in the Nuttall, Lamina 18. [It appears to be a cross-reference to me.]
Burial 10 was filled with ceremonial items before they were buried  by mud. After the mud was solid enough his son was able to attend to the rest of the burial details. And, after he paid his due respects to his sire, his accession to the throne was in 734.
All of the above were introduced as possible explanations for names of infants given at birth. The dates of the accomplishments could be wildly different than those used under the 1 to 13 numbers used for the days of the month, with no regard to the fact the number 13 was the roll-over number used for the first One. I discovered names of rulers or family could be altered by a single vowel caused when, in a different time period, a different researcher would spelled a name with another vowel or consonant he thought could be a better pronunciation of the glyph.
Years ago, I compiled a list of parentage units that included ruler, with wife, sons; rulers without same but with mother or father and other connected relationships. At the end, I did a separate list of two pages of rulers who had no connections to parents, or wife or children. Most of whom had sky event names. Those who had parentage statements, also had sky event names, probably given to them at birth during or just after the event.
Only the bravest of the brave would consider his or her name was important enough to be quasi-godlike and place him or herself in a temple area as a living representative the god or goddess. Jasaw Chan K’awiil seems to have had such a purpose in his lifetime.

Animal Skull who should have been in the tomb with his death offerings before the mud filled it up. Those of carefully dug out some of the mud and saw offering holes that had hardened around them, but not the offerings themselves. So the digging scholars decided it was better to stop and not go any further with that particular dig.

They had assumed that since a body was on a cot and covered with many cotton layers dipped in sacred red earth, that he was Animal Skull who was placed in the tomb after the flooding with so much mud. If the mud had had time enough to harden, the body would not have been so perfect for such a burial. It is quite possible that the name of the second body, over rode the honorable name of the person in the first burial.

Thursday, October 26, 2017

The Rabbit Patrol and more at Teotihucan

 Some of the Disciplines of the Teotihuacan University.
[10] A Surgeon on his way to a new
patient.and [11]
An inspector for water-controlled usage
[7] May be a choral group with acrobatics.
[8] A seller medicinal red wood for medical problems..

For Mexico, education for the men was and still is a major endeavor. Women have been added over the years and they have done an excellent job with archaeology and anthropology.

However, the Rabbit Patrol is a much needed service. A drunk on the street is not for one man to handle. Hard liquor can make a man stronger than an ox, even though he is a calm, weaker man when he is sober. So the Rabbit Control would call for help when needed as in the picture below: A drunken rip-roaring song telling the world, either he lost his great love, or his wife tossed him out because he was getting ornery.  Or maybe he just tripped and fell and could not get up, so decided he would sing a song anyway. 

The Rabbit Patrol
with one calling for more help [Bottom, Left]

The drawing comes from Atetelco, Teotihucan. The first time I saw this scenario was in a pre-1994 translation of the Codex Ramirez.  The man on his back had curly blond hair; the inference having his heart cut out, as a sacrifice on an Aztec altar. An Aztec-scribe-prisoner making a statement? It seems to have been Independent Invention or just wishful thinking on the part of the scribe.

The next time I saw it in a book or in a magazine, in full color, was when an Aztec sacrifice was having his heart held up by the priest, and those holding the man down were about to toss him down the already bloody steps of the pyramid-temple.  The temple, knife and blood was added but the layout was the same.
[More disciplines from Teo to be added later.]

Thursday, October 19, 2017

Aztec University: Astro-Physics, anyone?

This set came from the wall murals of Atetelco
in Teotihuacan

At the University of Teotihuacan, DF. one can study astronomy and probably a form of physics.
This lesson .appears to have three aspects.  Finding the stars in the sky, then measuring them on the ground.  The second and third (B and C) are similar to the layout on the ground at Beijing  Observatory, China. However, I believe their version was only to measure the daylight hours during the seasons.

These two have more of an affinity for the version in Japur Observatory in India.  The double pool at one end with measuring markings. Were these lessons for the pre-comet fall-out, or was it for the post-comet event displayed on the Aztec Calendar Stone.  So many polities make a small lesson plan into a greater lesson to learn.

The professors at Teotihuacan are displayed on the walls of other buildings. Their speech scrolls tell the students what is to be studied in their classes.

Astro-Physics was just one of many classes given in this university system.Not only finding the stars in the sky, but also measuring them on land with specific measuring pools and long markess sumilar to those found at the Observatory at Jaipur, India..

Lessons such as Astronomy, not only to locate stars, 
but also to measure them to the ground in pools of water
 similar to Jaipur, India. Their experts were also designated to teach.

From tracing was by Saburo Sugiyama of
the University of Arizona
The icon has a dog with a tassel, star firm in his headdress, the Tlaloc eyeware and knives not feathers on his outfit, he may be explaining the "rain of resin" or of "turpentine," explained in the Popol Vuh of the Maya.  The Tlaloc eyeware, is to illustrate his knowledge of the Owl Lady in the center of the mural whois pouring out knowledge from her fingertips.

West Wall: Storm God with single fang in mouth.
He carries a lightning bolt in right hand, plant forms in left,
raindrops from flower neckpiece.
The two above, both have multiple
star forms on the their headdresses and clothing.
Speech scrolls seems to illustrate stars and shells.
with plenty. if sand in scrolls,
Walking to check Night Beach erosion, maybe?
Possibilities are all described as iconic jobs on the wall murals.. The destruction was extensive. and only guesswork is possible., except for the 31 or so employment illustrations themselves. Surgery, a nserious need in a land where Machetes were used to clear land for agriculture. Doctors were needed just like any city. Botanical medicines were dispensed by university trained professor/physicians. If you want to call them Shamans, that is perfecctly all right. As long as their education was to cure people.
Emergency Surgery and Medicines

On the other hand, without clean water, people living in a water-based city would have a very serious problem. Night soils and trash were collected daily; aqueducts were built to bring fresh water into the area. It was essential that the water for lake cities be kept clean and flowing normally. No hidden standing puddles for mosquitoes. Agents were trained to test the water and make sure it was potable.
Potable Fresh Water for the City

Monday, October 16, 2017

Can a person write 2 Mondays; THEN add a Tuesday?

I thought the Trecena added only 1 Day!

                                                          Boy, was I wrong!!!

The Aztec University system illustrated many large and small jobs that men could perform; Teaching mathematics, history, astronomy; surgery. acrobats,actors, even policemen who could subdue rowdy drunks during the night. It included, fresh-water "engineers," and hortoculturalists for a total of at least 31 different disciplines to be studied at Teotihucan.

Astronomy and Math go together in our world, but not in the Maya. Each has its own method of identification.  Math, of course, is easier to the visual illustrated on the wall
Lessons in the Discipline Mathematics
and Possible Trecena concepts.
Thie group above appears have two teachers. One illustrates bars for the number desired [5 X 2 = 10].. The other. [a  TA in our school system] who just confirmed five was created by a student. The TA then inferred to the student, they should add their two fives together and add two "one's". He is indicating the object under his hand, a close duplicate of the one above his head appears to be the goal.

The TA explains that one dot is for the illustrated glyph by the main teacher above him with which the student can apply the math to astronomy indicated by the beauiful rose [nebula in the sky] which will connect to other disciplines such as "Slash and Burn" agriculture. 

Karl Taube in his paper, called the Maya agricultural method "swiddin." [See reference belowA student as he learns his mathematics can deal with many other disciplines, i.e. the value of objects for barter, creating a home with correct orientation to the stars, marketing one's produce or pottery, etc.

A twelve is inferred by the two added dots between the five of the TA and that of the student. A third was either forthcoming or it was deliberately left out as not yet part of the lesson. The counting process called the Trecena was used for a truncated work schedule that applies to milpa horticulture. It is not only necessary to own three milpa plots, but also to calculate his weekly procedures to keep all three milpas fertile. 

[The count must be calculated in a very complex pattern {hence truncated to four days per week to avoid too many distractions}  The Independent Invention scenario below is based upon modern problems for students who are not accustomed to printed book-learning.]

The horizontal layout of the Trecena carries the correct procedure [with 1-IMIX as the beginning of the first WEEK of the first MONTH of the year 0 POP [which Rome iniciated], in 1583-4 for the Mesoamerican calendars so as to make them more like the European. The Euros would also have less trouble following the native calendars.

However, When 1583, Rome introduced the IMIX, as the first day of the first month, the structure of the calendar intended, was altered.  An error occurred in the 52-week cycle. The artist put KIMI on the 45th-week in the correct position and KIMI in the EB position of week 46 to show the calendar would have an incorrect ending for 52 weeks when IMIX is the first day of the first month of the year. It must be removed for the four-day weeks to come out correctly. 

The second set of 26-weeks are a disaster. Nothing is correct, even though all are in place, except for 45th and 46th week columns as noted above. The second KIMI so close to the original indicates that the native who was ordered to redraw this calendar knew there would be a bad ending and refused to do any more than 51 weeks. He left the rest as blanks. The problem could be solved by adding a week starting with BEN in the empty space between the last week glyphs and the empty cartouches. The second set of 26-weeks would then be completed correctly, but only for the 52-weeks in the 360-year. I believed it should have begun with the week starting with IK and neatly end the 26 weeks in IMIX.  

I was quite proud of myself for figuring it all out, especially with Karl Taube's help about the agriculture process. Then, one day, mumbling the, by now familiar IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN mantra to myself for the hundredth time; I suddenly realized I had repeated the first line of the vertical version as the thirteenth line. Hey, that is a neat program, a pre-computer "constant loop."

I tried to convince my readers that this was a valid "loop."   As usual, no one even dreamed that I was serious. The Mesamericanos could never have created such a "computer" program so many centuries before our magic computers became a reality. Anyway, the mantra, I had been repeating to myself, was only one of many having four different names across the mesoamerican world. It was so much easier to use only the numbers. 

Even calculus formulae used MOD-13 constantly for calculating meso-dates. Chart after chart was created, years became garbled. They never seemed to reach into recorded European years after the Conquest.

Then one day, I was browsing into year-bearer charts for the upteenth time, eyes glazing
over, with the multiple changes. . . .I gave up. The 1-13 sequences made no sense at all. Suddenly, it dawned on me that the number 13 read exactly the same as number 01. 

Then, why was 01 the next number in line. One cannot have a running loop with two repeats in a row. That would meant A WHOLE DAY was added in the vertical Trecena every time the number 13 was counted, followed by another 01 sequence

really thought I was learning things after solving the horizontal Trecenta, that was another plus for my argument.  But, yet, something was still wrong. Days went by, I prepared a presentation, but it bombed and the Trecena had to be deleted because of lack of time. I finished my little speech on the last slide using the Madrid Serpent pages, informing all that the paper copy was correct for a horizontal count of the Trecena for each of the twelve years counted in each of the 01 to 13 count.  I figured if I had so much trouble even trying to talk properly; it was not what I had wanted to do.

Again, I almost missed the bus. Ended up sitting next to a person I could not talk to very well: a most amazing person who had been riding the buses for two months. We ended up simplifying our conversation to mere basics for hours until we both fell asleep. Next thing I knew we had arrived in Houston, and I was almost home. It seemed like I had been gone for a year. . . . a year?. . . .Wait, a minute. . . . .a year-bearer in the Trecena was 52 weeks of ONE YEAR in the horizontal count. 

The answer was not ONE DAY, but ONE YEAR was added to the Trecena every time the number 01 followed the 13. No wonder, the years were weird.


The Aztec/Maya Elite understood that many farmers were unable to read so instead of 
creating a 30- day/month for their 360-day year, they left  out Saturdays and Sundays of all the 52 weeks. The Borgia Codex, on the other hand, did 8.pages with the 260-day Trecena separated from the 7-day weeks of the newer 365.25-day.

It was inferred the 260-days were actually 26 years or half a HAAB or half of a 52-year cycle. 

If one takes the horizontal 52-week Trecena into account----as a working schedule for farmers who could not read----then the 52-year cycle is "Independent Invention," no more, no less. This ends the 01 to 13 nonsense.  The 13 count only means 13-weeks per season. Therefore, I must conclude there is a lot of work to be done straightening out the real calendar of Mesoamerica.
Taube, Karl, titled "The Classic Maya Maize God: A Reappraisal"  [In  Fifth Round Table, Pre-Columbian Art. Ed.: Merle Greene [1985, 171-181], San Francisco, California.] 

Gates,William, (1978) An Outline Dictionary of the Maya Glyphs. Dover edition.

Borgia Codex, Dover Edition.

Madrid Trio-Cortesano Codex