Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Saturday, December 6, 2014

A Kachina Called "Chasing Star"

Chasing Star with his mask is always identified by the great blue star face. He carries a yucca whip in his hand. The whip is to threaten small laughing  children, quite harmless, but it does sting a little if and when it connects to a child's bare skin, which is not very often during the fun times during the Hopi celebration. He also carries noisy bells that announce his presence.

Chasing Star also has a companion, a sort of a "jester" who helps him with the clamouring children around them, The mask that hides his face helps him to have
a voice change, so no one knows who he is.

However, the  Blue Star on the mask is strange and many people can not explain  why this clown is so much fun for the children. No one seems to have any memory
of its significance.  Their tales of creation give no clue as to any meaning since no
one has ever seen a "blue" star in their life time.  Stars in the the desert skies are always like brilliaint diamonds, especially early in the morning just before dawn when the sky is the darkest.

The isolation of the Hopi on the mesas during the government control during the 17th and 18th centuries and the schooling by the Great White Father, helped to create a new empty space in the memories of tribal lore.

One must travel the world of books to find the blue star that truly rocked the world. However, if one would begin with the Hopi prophesies one can find the answer. The Hopi Elders devised the same methods as did the Europeans during the Dark Ages: Place the information in the wrong place and make it visible to all.

There are nine prophesies and eIght of them are actual historical events. The eighth is the atomic bomb. The  ninth is the information about the BLUE STAR. It is the only one that is an actual past event verified by traditional lore in many different cultures and inferring that it was a very real future threat to the world.

The Blue star was once a nova that is now called the Ring Nebula.  Before it expanded and exploded it was just like the Toddler Star in the McNeil Nebula today.  At first, it was a normal white star. After it started to age, it became brighter than the moon and just as impressive. It finally changed color again and became the "magical" Blue Moon.

The Toddler Star that NASA found in the McNeil nebula is now a red Star. It eventually became the color oF Aphrodite's odd blue ichor that came from a wound in her wrist. Just ass the red color of the Toddler Star that has as it s north and south poles, two bright blue areas, will get hotter and hotter, the Blue heat inside will cover both hemispheres of the star globe.

Amazingly enough, there is another nebula in the sky that is a hand with a short arm section, that not only shows such a dark area in the wrist. It is part of the constellation Circinus called The Compass.   It was even painted into a picture by Holbein during the time of St. Thomas More.  I have for a long time believed that Saint Thomas was deliberately done away with because he had learned about the blue imagery of power.

Since the Turkish Empire grew in strength during the Middle Ages, at the time when the Blue Star was to be replaced----about the time after the Crusades----because it had become a very strong symbol of power, Since research on the Iliad woecifically noted that the Nausikia part of the story may have been a recent addition, I got curioous about the word ICHOR and actually found the word KOR in Turkish.  There was a translation school in Baghdad also had complained bitterly that many Syrian and Greek texts that they were able to copy, were badly in need of repair.

The "excuse" made the way for other languages to be inserted into texts that meant little to the Syrians or Greeks, but we're able to tell future readers that it the manuscript came from a later century. I.E. Spanish"Hay de mi"  was made into a short Greek phrase ("Egw de mi."* and if put into English, it is, "I de me!") in the Odyessy when after the shipwreck, Odysseus found himself without clothes [naked] in front of Nausikia, a beautiful maiden who came down to the water to wash clothes.

What does KOR mean?  It translates as "red hot cinders" comparable to the rain of resin or turpentine that was recorded in the Popol Vuh as falling from the skies in
Mayalands. "Red hot cinders" that appeared to come from a nebula that looked like a hand of God with a bleeding wrist but only if you look at NASA's presentation of the "  "Hand of God."

 The problem with research is that when one discovers tales that just might refer to astronomy, the immediate responose is what do the natIves know about astronomy. There is no doubt that because native equipment that was not technical as we not understand the word "Technical"  was "inferior" to better equipped cultures and s.o.o.o far distant from that information, everything is placed into the "invalid" and "improbable," File 13. therefore, nothing was important enough to implement except as a superficial guess, if anything was said about it at all.

Astronomy, howver, IS universal and the native information is many times much more explicit than official documentation. Such is the case with the Hopi prophecy number nine. Number Nine Prophecy should be read as Number One, sincd it was the beginning of the new Civilization of the Americas. it  actually is in agreement with Peru's of the main god asking for an extention of time to buid the city of Cuzco after the winds of the land swept all is his ceatons away each time.  He was given one day.  Hebrew, on the other hand was given one night.
__________________
*   I remember twenty or thirty years ago that I saw the Greek as  "Egw de me", and I did quite a bit of research on it within the three languages I know well.
I could have confused the spelling but not the pronunciation.ed "ai"  as "egw" but I cannot find either phrase now in the Greek.
The three languages were somewhere----- one based only on one written phrase----- as the pronouciation and may well be in the Iliad itself.
I will have to search both books but it will take a while. A Greek version on the computer would be appreciated, but it also can be tampered with. The hand-written version can be conpromised easily enough as it is. With a computer version it is even easier.

Friday, November 14, 2014

Another Mysterious Codex

In most of the old religions of the world, there are two items that stand out. One is a blue star. The other is a golden sun:  more  brilliant than  the sun we see every day. This sun is noticable as the sun around the head. That of a god, is usually shown as a blazing halo.

In  the XV through the XVI centuries there were known to be 72 different  names for those gods. [We were a very small world at that time]. By the time the 1700's arrived, the color blue had been partially replaced by the color associated with witchcraft, i.e. black!

However, the color blue had a very strong hold on people around the known word. The Hagia Sofia, the Blue Mosque , was named after it. The Hawaiian goddess, Uri, was  called the  "Mother of all Creation." The sparkling blue robe of Guai Yin and the blue cloak of Maria were also semi-associated with it.

Yet, the missionaries did their work well in Hawaii so URI, the  "Mother of all Creation " became ULI, the evil sorceress of the Black Night.

During the years that followed the Conquest of Mexico, Sahagùn began a translation of the Florentine Codex. It told the world about the "gods" of México and many of its customs. It also told the details about the Great Star which happened to be the Blue Star, but few were aware of the cross- referencing between Aztec lore and the Popol Vuh.

Since the Maya were the great hold-out and did not get "conquered until approximately the seventeenth century,"  no one really cared. With Linda Schele and Michael Coe, together with the photographs taken by Justin Kerr of the Maya Vases, the Maya Meetings and the Mixtec cultures became much more active.  

In the meantime  Professors Leon Portillo,  J. Soustelle, Mary Miller, Karl Taube, and Susan Milbrath worked a bit harder on Aztec astronomy. It seemed that all cultural and astronomical problems had been covered. Then Mèxico decided to have new Metro tunnels dug for the underground rail system. Two items turned up: the Moon disk, not quite as large as the Sun disk, and later, a panel of a goddess called Tlaltecuhtl, with fragments of blue paint on her body.
  1. Miller, and Karl Taube had a description of this goddess that matched the moon disk goddess of the torn-apart body, Coyotlxauhquiu. The moon disk was not a painted piece so she was identired differently from Tlaltecutli. She became the star daughter of Coatlicue.
Coalicue became pregnant by a magical ball of feathers that she had found.  Her star-daughter accused Coatlicue of being indescrete and she declared that her mother should be killed. Tlaltecuhtl seems to have covered a lot of the Maya Popol Vuh. Even to the ball games in the sky by  Hunahpù and Xbalenquè, and in the Madrid Codex.

The Popol Vuh maybe, but never in the Madrid, you say?  Really?

On pages 112 to 103 of the Madrid Codex several things are visible:

One:    The Great Star ìs blaźing in the sky;

Two:    The Rain of Resin [or the Rain of Turpentine] is falling;

Three:  The Wooden Manikins are being carved  [pp. 102-100] and

Fòur:    A series of mummies are being prepared for burial. [pp. 99-96]  
             Tribes, maybe?] Here also, on page 96 is the splitting of the tree, the
             Milky Way. The Twins  rise into the sky as the  new section of the
             Via Lacta.

Five:     More death panels, more people dying without proper burials.[p. 95]
              Tlaltecuhtl loses her head, etc. On the following page, other sky
              ladies come down with their sky baggage to comfort her. A sky lord
              of the night or a storm god gets a great thunder rattle to announce
              her arrival on the earth.

The Popol Vuh is well covered even though the rest of the Madrid pages may be altered even more to accommodate the  church mandates. Both secular law and ecclesiastical dogmas were tampered with at that time.

Are there any bees in the heavens; no, of course not. Then think bees and what they do, or what they feel like when they sting a person. It is more logical.

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Another Post-Gregorian Codex: The Dresden!

The Dresden Codex has been worn to shreds; solely because of everyone's insistence that the planets Venus and Mars (according to Immanuel Velokovsky's 1950 book,Worlds in Collisions. The impossible, but very romantic explantion of two planets crossing over into Earth's orbit, captured even the careful, reasoning of many professionals.
Fig. 01a: Gates D-47
Fig. 01b: Forstemann D-47
    Even so, there seems to be an never-ending attempt to explain the mathematical discrepancies found in the Dresden, especially those associ-ated with the planet Venus table.
      Each version, supposedly better than the first, second or later, multiple versions have tried to solve these irritating problems. However, no one has suceeded, except in very general terms. None of the discrepancies found in the Codex have been properly solved, except fhrough very complex tables and graphs that were probably never an option to the original authors of the Codex
        The Dresden is a ancient codex that has glyphs that are difficult to make out due to deterioration and coloration of the original. There are some copies that were made earlier that seem to correct several areas of importance, such as [Fig. 01-a-b] and for the Planet Tables of Venus and Mars.

De Landa, Friar Diego de Landa whose original manuscript was writen in 1566, was the first person in the Yucatàn to use the Gregorian Calendar and teach the natives the newly determined months of the Maya Calendar System. They were there shortly after de Landa's manuscript was written in 1573. The year bearers, at tht time, were
to be Kan, Muluc, Ix, Cauac. (de Landa, p. 60.)

Also de Landa wrote that the first day of the year was [now] One Imix which normally fell on July 16th. This day sign was also the first day of the [new] month Popp. (p. 68).

William Gates, on the other hand, only mentioned One  Imix, as being foound in the Madrid Codex. His main comment was about which was a date, which required 6 tuns and 2 uinals to complete or tie up the count of 9.9.16.0 as the desired 9.9.16.0.0 or 4 Ahaw 8 Cumhu.

Linda Schele did several translations of the text above in Fig. 01.beginning with the words "tied to the East."  The word "East" appears to be in error.since all cometc are born in the "land of the dead" in the west, not the east. whIch is graphically illustrated by skeletal figures in two instances . One was the skull of the father of the twins,and the second was the Dresden pages above with the skeletal god of the underworld sending the twins to Good Moon, the proposed mother-to-be of the twins.

It is obvious that  the Land of the Dead in the west is implied by the skeletal figures.
It does imfer that the "Dresden Codex" another "doctored" Codex  to be deciphered even more carefully than those that are obviously falsified.
_________________________________________________
Castillo-Torre, Josè, (1955) Port la Señal de Hunab Ku, Reflejos de la Vida de los Anitguos Mayas, Mèxico D.F: Liberia de Manuel Porrùa. and, (Translated with Notes, by William Gates)  New York: Dover Publishing Inc.

Edmonson, Munro S. (1988) The Book of the Year: Middle American Calendrical 9Salt Lake City, Utah, University of Utah Press.

Gates, William, (1932) An Outline Dictionary of Maya Glyphs, With Author, Studies Studies" reprinted from The Maya Society Quarterly, New York: Dover Publishing, Inc.

Förstmann  (1972 ) Codice de Dresde, Mėxico, D. F.: Fondo de Cultural Economica, S.A.

Schele, Linda and Grube, Nikolai, (1997) Notebook for the XXIst Maya Hieroglyphic Workshop, The University of Texas at Austin.

Thompson, J. Eric, (1972) Comomentario al Codice de Dresde, Libro de jeroglfos mayas,  (Traducción de Jorge Ferreiro Santana; Revisiòn de Lauro Josè Źavala) Mèxico, D.F.: Fondo de Cultural Economica/Mèxico.

Villacorta, Carlos A. y Villacorta, C., J. Antonio, (1930) Maya Studies #3, Drawings of the Pages and  Commentary in Spanish, Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press.



Saturday, November 1, 2014

The 364-Day Calendar in the BORGIA CODEX

The Borgia Codex begins with eight pages of the Gregorian "trecena" count, without the proper format of the Maya version.

First page of the Borgia Trecena attempts
The partially destroyed  copy from Dover Pubications has an interesting story behind it.  And very serious doubts as to its origins. The story put out by the Vatican was that the children of the servants, were playing games and the Borgia manuscript accidentally fell into the fire.

However, if only one would change the symbols of the politically correct church language into church hierarchy, one might find that the servants are the "children" of the "Papa" [the Pope] who had told his children, [the servants], to burn the manuscripts [the codices] of the "heathens."  And, in their simple faith, picked up the recently delivered Borgia Codex.

The Holy "Father," realizing, his mistake immediately, recovered the new, slightly singed manuscript from the fire.
The last page [8] of the Borgia calendar
The monks who created this calendar form, knew about the trecena  calendar of its creator, D. Veladèz, who may have engraved it in 1551, or Fray Francisco de las Navas [Cogs or Wheels] himself, who became the new owner of that calendar in 1551.

Although the Handbook of the Middle American Indians,  Vol. 14, Part Three, (1975), claimed the VEYTIA  calendar was a true "Native" manuscript, a recent informant told me that any Spanish surname that ends with the letter "Z" is that of a Jewish person; an engraver of this type of calendar.  On that basis, and the fact that a monk obtained the calendar, possibly in 1551, he may have been considered a heretical prisoner of the Inquisition. His calendars were published later by the monk, Fra Francisco de la Nava, in 1584. Whether Veladez was alive at that time or not was not known by the editors of the Handbook!

Even so, the Borgia  Codex did create a 364 day calendar, that emphasized the 260-day ritual  calendar of the Mesoamericans, with tiny feet to indicate the missing day[s] for the 365-day year. The missing elements here, are the 104 days that are also to be counted in the top and  bottom  borders.

On a whim, I decided to check the Chinese 60-year calendar. I had  never been able to unravel the method they had used for their calculations. When I discovered that the Borgia did not have any definitive sequence that included the accepted year bearers, I thought it odd.

The Chinese calendar jogged my memory a bit. I recalled that they had used five names for one phase of their calendar calculations: the five words were  metal, wood, fire, water and earth,  Because the twelve animal month names were nearby, both the Aztec and the Chinese calendars made sense.  Five times twelve equaled the sixty year cycle.

Returning to the Borgia, I resumed my search for sequential names in the five glyph column of the ritual calendar. None appeared, so I returned to Sylvanus Morley's 1956 book. I only found a four-glyph set, similar to the Maya group. The Aztec version reads: Knife, House, Rabbit and Water.

However, no proper year bearer sequence, neither four glyphs nor five appeared within the eight calendar pages. There were only the tiny feet to say that the calendar could  not accommodate the full 365 days in the 260/364 layout.  Even so it was an impressive attempt to ignore the Gregorian months while still following the new 365-day year.

As for the subsequent pages of "god" groups, except for the pages defining the sun, moon, the Great Star of Sahagùn and the butterfly event, that includes the "venus" attributes, the majority of the pages were overdone with what Linda Schele would call a "spaghetti-syndrome." Apparently they were created to impress but had no useful information. I will leave this to those enjoy peering into a morass of repetitive data that contains multiple names for similar god-entities throughout the codices. 

Tuesday, August 5, 2014

The Source of the Gregorian Trecena


The "Useless" MADRID Codex
The Source of the Gregorian Trecena

By D. M. Urquidi
VEYTIA calendar 1551
  1. Astronomy class at Teotihuacàn
I am of the opinion that in order to understand any  calculation, calendar or ordinary mathemtics, one must go to the source. Such a process is slow and labrous, but in the end, it can prevent errors made from assuming an equation that does not exist.

Floyd Lounsbury's whole premise for the Maya calendar in his 1976 calculations were dependent upon the concept that a tr = 13 x 2 = haab  was supposed to be a ritual time of 260 day.

When it fact, it is only half a year of 26 weeks.   Two x haab = 52 weeks which was never used in the old Maya calendars. The problem is that there were no month designations in the 360 calendar.

The Maya astronomers then decided to use the older 360 day year for their own comfort and to help the older generations to understand the Christian changes that were emerging.    

They decided to create a Distance Number for the descrepances between the solar/lunar cycles that came about when the destructive comet soared across the skies; henceforth. making it easier for the uneducated to accept such changes in their life style.

Such Distance Numbers were then used to revise many of the old dedicatory inscriptions. It may well be the reason that broken stelae were, at times, buried under a temple or palace structure.

Since the Maya New Year was created by the Gregorian, as an aid for the European Conquistadores to understand the Maya Calendar, 1-Imix  became the equivalent to 8 February while 0 Pop corresponded to July 26. The Gregorian was then given to the Meso-American tribes in 1584, some thirty [slow] years after its creator Diego de Landa, died in 1551.

As a result, many are searching for the original 0 Pop [4 Ahaw, 8 Cumku] thinking the month was invented by the Native Maya, when, in fact, it was part of the post-Conquest, laws and restrictions put upon Meso-Americans by the Church. 

No year was given; only that it was the second journey of the sun in the Latitude 19 degrees and 42 minutes.  In that way, the seasons were finally restored to their proper sky locations for the astronomer-priests and the farmers.

The MADRID  Serpent Calendar pages
* * * * * * * *
 Above is a paste-up of the eight Serpent calendar pages in the Madrid Codex, which I  believe  to be of the real "native" Codex, which, starts not ends, at page 112 since the Madrid begins with the presence of the great star of Sahagùn and continues on to tell the story of the "rain or even of resin"  [or "of turpentine"] together with the story of the wooden manikins. It continues to relate more of the Popol Vuh. The calendar itself was a complete failure, as a Gregorian example, but does show how the Maya used their own calendar systems.

Here, however, here the Serpent Pages have a different role.  It shows us just how the Maya really counted their days in their calendars.: Four, five or even six down and the necessary day glyphs across to  complete the twenty days of the first set; slip the top glyph of the second set of days to the bottom of each column [as shown after the first green line in the top section above]; repeating the transfer of the top glyph to the bottom of each column for every 20 day-month.  In this manner each month changes at the same time but no column passes any information to its neighbors. It recreates a repeating ring of glyphs in each column  and in that manner fill out the necessary 360 day calendar but only if the count of days are noted as 5 weeks x 6 days a week or even the reverse 6 weeks x 5 days per week.

The caveat here is that each subsequent 20 day column reacts like the one-armed bandits  "cherry rings" of Reno or any other gambling establishment. The columns put the top glyph at the bottom, until the first  glyph (Ik) ends at the bottom its own column in the fourth set of twenty days.

The four, five,or six glyphs of each column set will then begin the whole process all over again.

It is a very difficult thing to learn after being so accustomed to doing the count of the days the easy way. The Trecena has continued in our own calendars since the Gregorian  calendar was created. All one has to do is count one to thirteen for every Saturday in even our regular calendar and it works out as 13 weeks per season, only adding one week when our 375-day year is a leap year.

When the week is split into two months, then the week carrying the number thirteen  belongs to the Saturday, not to the Sunday of that week, even if it is part of the next week, month or even the next year, as often happens after the Leap year. 

With the decision of the astronomer-priests to retain their 360 day/year calendar system, every effort was made to have the new 365 day calendar comparable to their own 360-day calendar. In order to do that, they apparently shaved one or two days off the bottom of their calendar to fill in the new 52 weeks schedule. But they failed, as can be seen on the last section above. The two Kimis [in yellow] found there, was probably their way of telling others that the 52 week calendar failed to function.

The question will be does one only add one day per week, or was it more than five days to the Native pre-conquest weeks.  Six days would work very well for the 360-day year.Floyd Lounsbury's Trecena


tr         The trecena or 12 weeks, [not 13 as reported] having 4 days per week for 20-days each month for  52 weeks in a Haab. Such a process was NEVER used by the older Maya calendars.  [Four days per week did not work to complete a 52 week cycle.                    (See historical note about Fra Francisco de la Nava under Veytia Calendar 1975 edition of HMAI, IV, III p. 230.)

v          The veintena. Or the twenty day count should begin with Ik, and end with Imix
            since Imix was the GREGORIAN adjustment as the FIRST DAY of the first month
            called 0 POP that Rome inserted into the Maya calendar, and began in Mexico in 1593-4.
            Ik (1), Akbal (2), Kan (3), Chicchán (4), Cimi (5), 
            Manik (6), Lamat (7), Muluc (8), Oc (9), Chuen (10), Eb (11), Ben (12),
            Ix (13), Men (14), Cib (15), Cabán (16), Eznab (17), Cauac (18), Ahaw (19),
            Imix (20)

tz         A day of the tzolkin which equals 13 weeks per season. 

         [I have separated the thirteen count into three year-segments of four-day columns. It is the year count 
           not the Trecena count as assumed by some.  This just creates a proper agricultural process of: plant                    
          the first year and leave the last two years to follow the first  As years to leave the mila as fallow    
          ground. The last row of the Trecena just allows the three assumed years to repeat itself.  Nevertheless , 
          this attempt of four  days per week failed to create a 52 week calendar, as stated above.]

            Ik (1), Manik (6), Eb (11), Cabán  (16), Ik (1 +1),
            Manik (2), Eb (2), Cabán  (2)Ik (2), Manik (2+1)
            Eb (3), Cabán  (3), Ik (3),  Manik (3) Eb (3+1)
            Cabán  (4), Ik (4), Manik (4), Eb (4), Cabán (4+1)

            Ik (5), Manik (5), Eb (5), Cabán  (5), Ik (5 +1),
            Manik (6), Eb  (6), Cabán  (6)Ik (6), Manik (6+1)
            Eb (7), Cabán  (7), Ik (7), Manik (7), Eb (7+1)
            Cabán  (8), Ik (8), Manik (8), Eb (8), Cabán  (8+1)

            Ik (9), Manik (9), Eb (9), Cabán  (9), Ik (9 +1),
            Manik (10), Eb  (10), Cabán  (10)Ik (10), Manik (10+1)
            Eb (11), Cabán  (11), Ik (11), Manik (11), Eb (11+1)
            Cabán  (12), Ik (12), Manik (12), Eb (12), Cabán  (12+1)
     
            Ik (13), Manik (13), Eb  (13), Cabán  (13), Ik (13 +1) for a "loop" formula

M        Calendrical month  any one of 18 months. [Again, 0 POP and all other months
               was a Gregorian adjustment by Rome for the Maya  calendar year ] 
            Pop (1), Uo (2), Zip (3), Zotz (4), Tzep (5), Xul (6), Yaxkin (7), Mol (8),    
            Ch'en (9), Yax (10),  Sac (11), Ceh (12), Mac (13), Kankin (14), Moan (15),
            Pax (16), Kayeb (17), Cumhu (18), 
            [Wayeb (19) Floyd's Text], (If  month has only n1, n2, n3, n4, and n5, for the
             number of days in that month, If the year has 365 days, use Wayeb)],

d          day of the month, any one of the twenty days. Mod 19,  i.e. of 20 days in
            five weeks of four days each, [as found in the Madrid Codex on the Serpent
            Pages.] 

                    This list is different from the normal sequence.
            Ik (1), Akbal (2), Kan (3), Chicсhán (4), Cimi (5) Manik (6), Lamat (7),
            Muluc (8), Oc (9), Chuen (10), Eb (11), Ben (12), Ix (13), Men (14),
            Cib (15), Cabán (16), Eznab (17), Cauac (18), Ahau (19), Imix (20),

h          days of two haabs = 52 weeks = mod 360 days, [if 365, then Mod 365 +1=
             every 6th year = 366]

cr         day of calendar-round expressed in terms of coordinates tr, v, and h.
            [For example “6 Etznab 11 Yax”. Floyd's original text]
            {For pre-split mountain event found in the Bodley Codex, a 360 day-year 
             calculation is necessary for the pre-first mountain and for the post-mountain 
              one needs 365.25-day year.]  

lc         date in the long count: expressed in Maya numerals, usually of five places, of
            the following:
            n5, n4, n3, n2, n1, where n1 is the number of days in the kin position, n2 the
            number of winals, n3 the number of  tuns;  n4 the number of katuns, and n5
            the number of baktuns.

dn        distance number: (positive or negative) to be added to a give cr or lc or both;
             expressed as a Maya numeral, of any number of pieces. 

[The above definitions are just suggested changes to Floyd Lounsbury's original calculus statements
which indicate a 52-year cycle. This makes his calculated data a bit out of sync with the natural measurements of orbital time of the world.]

A  conclusion reached, is that, without searching for the beginnings of any theory, one should never assume such unknown numbers are useful, until all data pertaining to such artificial dating methods can be used in all phases of their calendar calculations.

 [See the Borgia Codex Calendar for the 364 day-year which included the 260-day count for the Trecena in the middle.]


Sunday, July 20, 2014

Climate Change I I [July 20. 2014]


          The news article excerpt below gives us a better view of what is happening to our climate than all the 'climate control solutions' propounded in seminars around the world lately.
The second mission by Orbital [in Eastern Virginia on July 13, 2014] is part of their $1.9 billion contract with NASA to deliver up to 44,000 pounds of cargo to the International Space Station over eight trips between 2014 and 2016. More than 3,000 pounds of cargo are packed in Cygnus on the Antares, which is the length of a 13-story building, according to Space.com. The mission had been repeatedly delayed due to technical issues and weather conditions, [NBC News,com Celestial Care Package] 
The last information I gathered about the space shuttle is that they are surrounded by six SBR's  Shuttle Booster Rockets.  EACH one before it is released from the shuttle after arriving in the stratosphere generates 2.8 million pounds of thrust PER FOOT against the earth to help the shuttle
arrive high into the stratosphere.  . .  . . not per square foot, but PER FOOT!!!!!

In other words, each rocket attached to a shuttle to give it enough lift to get out of our gravity uses the shuttle platform as a huge sledge hammer and it not only reverberates against our tectonic plates under our continents and in our oceans, but they also, as they enter the ocean or gulf waters with residue ash in their exhaust tubes, such ash also produce acid in the waters. . . . . . . . [just ask your grandparents who used to make soap to wash clothes]. . . . . killing all the nearby coral reefs and in general, upsetting all of our eco-systems which begin within the depths of the Ocean Seas and are needed  for our nourishing food chain in order for us to survive.

No cans or boxes can be filled with our foodstuffs; all plants and animals, fish or birds will, and are dying off.  We will be left with nothing to eat except more chemicals commonly called pills with artificial taste and fillers to make us think we just had a meal.

It seems like we might be eating like the bovines and will definitely need  second stomachs soon enough. However, NASA is promising us either a diamond studded meteorite which will pave our streets with gold {?} or another Earth-like planet, that we-----millions of people------can be transported to in order to begin our lives in another pure, unsullied Eden. And, of course, start all over again, with building homes, farming our own farms; in general, being servants of the Earth? Or of those-----who will take us there?

Why can't we do that here?  If we would stop butchering the innards of our Earth, and clean up our land, sea and sky, We could, in fact, actually rejuvenate Our Earth-------if it is not too late!

[See Climate Change I in  July 7, 2012]

A Connection with India?

Madrid Codex, M-19
Churning the Milk Sea in Vedic Astronomy
          When I first saw this pen and ink picture in the Vedic Astronomy of R. L. Thompson, I thought it was a fake drawing.

   However, when I checked out my copy of I.V. Kno-rozou's, drawings from 1963 Mr. Thompson had only altered the two gods at the top, on either side of the turtle.

          He had added rain from the fiery collar of death bells, that had been confirmed as fire by the same short lines at the top of his head-dress. It seems that the two sets of short lines indicates the Old Fire God as Vega in the constellation Lyra; once the turtle constellation used by Hermes in his musical sky battle with Apollo.

          Yax, as a glyph meaning green, blue or center, would have agreed with the Indian version of churning the Milky Way as the comets)\[the demons and gods] at the bottom pulling the serpent back and forth as in the previous pages of the Madrid Codex between M-12 to M-18.

          The God at the beginning on M-12 had a headdress similar to the YAX glyph found on M-19 in the Middle of the turtle on the top of the platform [or pillar as in a similar painting in India of Vishnu],  the god who turned into a turtle avatar of Shiva. As a result the sea of Milk [the Milky Way] churned faster than before, indicated by the uneven count of days for each of the serpents between  M-12 to M-18.

          In pictures of Krishna, they are always shown that Krishna's skin is blue.The most popular picture is when he took the saris of the women that were bathing in the water and hung them all in a tree, where he sat and waited for them to look for their clothing.

          It was not a magical but an earthy way to show that the Milky Way had become two branches as seen from the earth, but it was still only one view of the galactic spiral where our earth spins around the sun in its, [now 365 day] orbit.

           The concept of a new Milky Way is located in many myths around the world, even in the Popol Vuh of the Maya when they say that the 400 boys [actually 1,000's] that were slain by Zipnac followed the Twins, Hunapu and Xbalenque, to the sky as their Milky Way Star companions.

         Not only does the Madrid Codex show that the stars went back and forth, but also the Hopi were very explicit in  the ninth prophecy about the same event. Their ninth prophecy is actually the only way, with missionary interference, that the Hopi could retain the memory of their history as they entered the caves in the mesas.

          Were these stories carried to India, or did India see the same recreation of the Milky Way as the rest of the world?

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

An Ancient Map in Reverse



A Greeland Map of  the "Ocean"
          One considers maps to be done only with latitudes and longitudes, but a long time ago, there was a need to make certain maps that could be read accurately, but not give information to the enemy.  The above "map" is one of those strange items found in books that are ignored because it is not a map of land, but of water.

          Nevertheless, it is a map of an island called Greenland, dated maybe 1194 AD. Very crudely drawn, but one can recognize what we now call the North Atlantic Ocean with various small, insignificant islands here and there along land masses with strange, awkward shapes, Yet, the cartographer did something that was not very well known, except to Ptolemy in the First Century AD. That cartographer, living in Alexandria, numbered the longitudes and the latitudes in detail. But for what reason?

          The Greenland version also has the longitudes and latitudes done in detail. There  are also the letters of the alphabet, starting, not with A, but with B at the bottom left of the map. These letters: B, A, C, D,E and F, appear to be marking various ports of call. The size and boldness of each letter probably indicated the importance of the port. 

          During the era of wooden ships, there would be many reasons to seek shelter, repairs or even food supplies. They could also deliver travelers who would then continue their journeys on land. 
However, this map seemed to have had a different purpose, that of subterfuge. 

          Was it solely to protect territorial waters from being over-fished by the competitors? Or were they protecting their fur suppliers. That would have been fine, but why does it have Baja California outlined on one side and Florida seemingly connected to the Yucatan on the other side of the map? 

          Yes, this could very well be my imagination, but the islands do seem to be lakes, inlets or harbors.  A cartographer  well-versed the ancient language of Greenland, might find that the words on the map are idiomatic phrases that had a variety of different meanings. 

          Was "subterfuge" the reason that water and land were reversed? Greenland is located much closer than Ireland, that of Saint Brendan's island. What political reason would there have been to subjugate their finds to a higher power?  And which higher power were the voyagers attempting to deceive?

          How were the Ptolemy map and the Greenland map connected? Only by latitudes and longitudes?  How was it possible to do the Longitudes and Latitudes of Ptolemy in the XIIth century, when they had not yet been calculated by Alfonso X, el Sabio in the XIIIth century who had originally placed them on his collection of  Ptolemy maps in 1238 AD? (Keller, John Esten (1967), Alfonso X, El Sabio)

More information can be found in the book called the Hidden Land. soon to be available on www.lulu.com.  Two other books are available there [1] The Popol Vuh, which is NOT a translation;
and [2] A Ten-Sun Day,  A more complete story about the nova and the comets that picked up its debris and carried it all to earth. This version has an interesting Persian reference.


Saturday, May 3, 2014

Moon Goddess, Rabbit, & Disasters

K-5166
The Humiliation of God L
          The above-mentioned vase is an interesting compressed study of the disaster that almost destroyed the world.  The Moon Goddess, who has the black sun spots of disease on her skirt, is holding up the Rabbit, The  humiliation of God L [who just might be God N] is in progress.          

K-5166 Justin Kerr's  Moon Vase
          Four warriors, each holding a moon glyph on their shoulders, are in attendance. Two directly behind God L appear to have one cuff for both hands. The latter two are not showing
their hands. 

          The one directly behind God L is all red but the white moon on his shoulder seems to be very blotchy. It seems to have two orange dots in the upper curve of the moon glyph, but the necklace worn by the red-man has three more beads against the back edge of the moon. If this is to fit into the Popol Vuh scenario of the Twins during their ball game in the sky, the red man would be a star that is burning with ashy countenance and about to burst.

          The second red-man has a about four dots inside his moon glyph, and a white face with lips that appears that he is whistling, as if he were a very loud comet wind, assuming that Hunahpú and Xbalenqué are the two comets that passed through a nebula named NCG 7000. That nebula has the appearance of a skull covered in red cinnabar, as was befitting for the honored dead. Its mouth is open and through that mouth came the twin comets into Red-Moon, the mother-to-be of Hunahpú and Xbalenqué.

          As a further reference, there is a raptor bird with a second head as a whistling wind, facing backward on Capstone 7 at Rio Blanco. (Ntbk 27th Maya Mtgs 03/2003, II-14) A long time ago, I saw only two heads, one facing forward with fire from its beak and a Macaw facing backwards, with winds coming from his beak. I am amazed that I missed the Macaw at that time, but I did. I saw it as the wind coming from the headdress of the reversed serpent-toothed head below that of the fire bird.But there are actually three heads in this group. Each has a specific purpose.

        Capstone 6 and 7 contain the cross sticks for star viewing and both have black lined "chambers", so that may be that the two chambers are facing different directions: One for the "two suns" and Capstone 6 for the Moon Goddess. It probably is the work of the Moon Goddess to set out the various moons during different events. This brings us back to K-5166. and the humiliation of God L.

          The third moon had a jaw-jutting masked god who seems to be holding a strap with bells. Such bells, if they are "out of tune" [as an irritating sound] would indicate the raucous sound of the Twin comets much too close to the earth. He had only three dots inside the curve of his moon glyph.

           The last holder of a six-dotted moon glyph is a raw-boned male skeleton with a hook nose cavity. Naturally, that would imply that not only did the man of mud die, but also the manikins of wood as is described in the Popol Vuh.  Why, the Popol Vuh?  Because that is where one will find the story of the Twin Comets.  There is a rabbit in the PV as the false head/ball  of Hunahpú in the last game that the Twins lost to the Xibalbans. It is also found in the Aztec version that tells of the horrors of the sky fireball.

             Kaye Almere Read, in 1998) published Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos."  On pages 50 to 57, the story of the 'Birth of the Fifth Sun' contains the blood-red sky that lasted so long that a human picked up a rabbit and threw it at the burning 'sun.' The inference is that the Rabbit ended the super heat in the sky. The Moon Goddess and the Rabbit, then, were in charge of taking the North Star clothing of God L who lost his position as Draco, the North Star. They, then, were to take them to the new North Star at the end of the handle of Ursa Minor. God L was embarrassed that he could no longer control the stars that once were so regular.

            New constellations, i.e. Pegasus and the feet of Orion, etc. had appeared.  God L was now too old to continue his rule of the northern skies. So he was literally "put out to pasture."

           K-5166 gives a lot of information about the Serpentine God L and in what manner he was debased. In fact, it tells the whole story that is found in the Popol Vuh more concisely than the PV itself.




Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Two Versions of A Nebula

 
A Strange 1987 Copyright 
A Correct Dover Edition N-34 BR
  These two pictures are almost exactly the same. However, one was copyright in 1987 and the one on the left was printed by Dover Publications in 1975; while in Austria in 1992, the Nuttall Codex was made as a facsimile;. The Explicativo or book, was put into a estuche [case] made in Mexico City.
  * * * * * * * * * *


            Apparently, the Explicativo (book) was created and explained by a person who knew what the iconography was supposed to mean. [The whole reference for the book will be below for this Page N-34-BR  #3o. [Tercero] La Señora 2 Caña (Reed) - Quetzal de Jade.
Having the same red circle and blue [hand] center
as Seven Macaw and his [finger crest]  and turquoise blute teeth
            To call the bird "Quetzal" might be correct, but the red/blue ring above his head is indicative of a nebula in the Constellation Compass, near the South Pole.  The "Hand of God," so-named by NASA, has the same circle of red stars above the hand has the "Quetzal" with the Blue skirted Spinner Lady. This may indicate that the Lady is not only Seven Macaw, but also the "Hand of God" as a different orientation of the constellation called the Summer Triangle, having two more names:  the Northern Cross and Cygnus, the Swan).

         It was called the "Hand of God" in Maya and was not only in the Nuttall Codex and in various other codices. It also is carved on a Persian monument that may be located in Rome, Italy since the author G. Sesti of the book,  The Glorious Constellations lived there, and not in Persia. Since he did not identify where the monument was located, it is a 'sometimes' indication that the source is where the author lived.

          Erasmus and Thomas More also knew about the "Hand of God" through a painter named Holbein who painted a family portrait of Thomas More as a result of a referral from Erasmus.

           Charlemagne, back a few centuries also was aware of the "Hand of God" nebula.. Charlemagne decided when the "Hand of God" came together with a new branch of the Milky Way. He felt it was just a longer version of the familiar one that circled the world once upon a time only at the Equator it was 360 degrees as a perfect circle for a year of 360 days.  

              Napoleon was yet another  Emperor in Europe that used the Hand of God as his staff of authority.  It was just the same as the multiple Maya staffs used to indicate authority in the Yucatán.

          Why did the Graz version scratch over the beak of the "Quetzal"? Was it because the "Quetzal" was just Seven Macaw with a different orientation [or sky view] to the world? It does include the great red circle of stars around the finger of the Hand of God. H.m..m.m..

               A long time ago, my dentist was telling me about his vacation to New Zealand. On the way back, his wife was looking our of the window of the plane and mentioned that Orion was up-side down. When he queried "why"? She told him that all stars south of the Equator are shifted to an up-side down (or at leasst a 90 degree shift from the northern view.

                My research seems to include such statements, because when I looked in up on sky charts in Terrence Dickenson's (1999,    ) Nightwatch: Charlemagne was correct.  The reason was that when the world shifted, the Milky Way actually became a front and a back branch still connected at both ends by its original circular position, once spanning our Equator. But our tilted spin changed the 360 degree circle to a 365.25 oval and that stretched the ends away from our comfortable view of the stars around us.

          It seems that now with our 365.25 day/degree year, created by a shift of 47 degrees to the southeast. According to the Popol Vuh, the Earth was 'sort of" buried in the stars of a single spiral of our galaxy during the beginning of their time schedule. It was only half-a-sun that was seen in those days.
These two views of our Galaxy only points to our Sun.
Our seven Planets, which includes Earth are insignificant  in the Galaxtic
           This gave our world a new view of the Milky Way.  Our view is now that of an upper register (for summer) and a lower register (for winter). Our North Star is only exact North when the Earth shifts from the Tropic of Cancer to the Equator a span of 23.5 degrees and then continues on to the Tropic of Capricorn near Peru at the southern 23.5 degrees.

With North straight up in the center, it was not
necessary to include            
             The whole concept here, leads one into a realm of more intensive research with many more questions that can be answered now that we have computerized programs that can now be created as 3-D cubes. 
--------------------------------------
Anders, Ferdinand (Viena) ; Janssen, Maarten (Leuden); Reyes-García, Luis, (México); 
(Comisión Técnica Investigadorz, (1992, 163) Crónica  Mixteca: El rey 8 Venado, Garra de Jaguar, y la dinastía de Teozacualco-Zoachila; Libro explicativo del llamado Códice Zouche-Nuttal, Ms. 3967l British Museum, Londres; Introducción y explícación; Ferdinand Anders / Maarten Janssen, / Luis Reyes-García, / Gabino Aurora Pérez-Jiménez; Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario (España); Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt (Austria); Fondo de Cultura Económica (México)
Page 163 and in the Nuttall Codex, N-34-RB  #3o. La señora 2 Caña (Reed).  Quetzal de Jade.

Dickenson,'Terrence (1999) Nightwatch: A Practical Guide to Viewing the Universe. 3rd Edition, Willowdale, Onatario, Canada: Firefly Books. 

Sesti, Giuseppe Maria (1991) The Glorious Constellations: History and Mythology,  (Translator Karin H. Ford) NewYork / Palermo, Italy: Harry N. Abrams, (Novecento Editrice.) 

Saturday, April 12, 2014

K-579—An Interesting Defeat

K-579 God N being blinded by The Hero Twin; Hunahpú near the Cosmic Tree
Commonly known as the Milky Way.

          This defeat will encompass the whole corpus of codices, manuscripts and glyphs that when combined will answer more questions than are asked. In other words, no one really wants to know why god N is being threatened by Hunahpú.  It is so much more useful to one's 'Intellect' to leave a question unanswered and to give others a chance to guess. It makes conversations more lively and much more interesting.

           In looking at the above scene, I came to a conclusion that there might be a real connection between God L and God N. They might be the exact same god with a set of word glyphs from the other side of the mountain, or from across the border where the languages are more or even less explicit. Such spoken language differences can be duplicated in a glyph language base also. The reference points for one area can evolve to a different set of referrals using a local animal or bird to explain the very same star event.

          The above is only one example of a star event that refers to an event that occurred in the ocean (conch shell) on land (the serpent) and in the sky (Hunahpú) as a blazing comet. that came too near a dying star, the Great Star.

         Here we will call the old god, God L.  The vulture at the end of the name glyph  means only that the eyes of God N. This is illustrated clearly in the Dresden Codex on Lamina #03. A victim of the vulture is losing his eyes at the same time that the Cosmic Tree is being split down the middle. The text with the dates have been conveniently deleted so that future generations will never know if it could happen again.  if one has a time line of some sort, a trajectory of a comet can be calculated and the time it might return would be expected.


         Once the vulture did blind God N, he then appeared  with the Jaguar of the Night Sky on Lamina M-39c of the Madrid Codex.  One must also take note of the 'radish' ear spool   of the one blindedand the two fireball dots on both sides of the Jaguar. Other codices run the gamut of displaying the Cosmic Tree split in half,  broken or fallen. Gods emerge from the Tree, or there is a dragon at its roots.

          The 'radish' took on a life of celebration in the Noche de los Rabanos in Oaxaca near the Christmas Holidays. And it also went south of the Equator to the mountain tops of Peru, where two 'radishes' the same shape of the one in the Madrid, are displayed on the Nasca plains in the Andes.

          The "venus" glyph is in the side panel and in the title,of the above vase so one can expect that the Great Star will destroy God N, not with a lancet, but with a good strong fiery spear coming from the Great Star [mentioned by  Sahagún, Vol. II, Book VII, chapter III]  with a second reference to its actual location as found in a modismo:  ''el signo del toro'  in Chapter IV, number IV  as the wagon or Carro. Again, one can see from other illustrations of this event, a scorpion below the Cosmic Tree, a bird high in the tree and Hunahpú getting ready to use his blowgun to dislodge the bird. Behind the tree Xbalenque is probably hiding, but he shows his jaguar  paw on the trunk. Is he waiting to collect the debris from the  bird?

          At the end of the next chapter,  [Chapter IV page 264)]  the 'Carro'  (Wagon] has a defined identification as:
A aquellas estrellas, que en algunas partes se llaman el Carro, esta gente las llama Escorpión, porque tienen figura de escorpión o alacrán, y así se llaman en muchas partes del mundo.                    [ Ibid (1982, 178)]
          It reads: "those stars that en some parts are called, the Cart, the people call it Scorpio instead. because they have a figure similar to the  name scorpion [or alacrán]. so in this terminology in many other parts of the world."

           Not only is this story continued within the Maya, the Aztec, the Mixtec worlds, but even the Olmecs had the same tale to tell.  Quite frankly, the story went clear around the world at different latitudes and longitudes, with a plethera of strange new words to describe the event.

A vase with God L, the Rabbit in the arms of the Moon
          God L is half kneeling/half sitting in front of the rabbit being held by the Moon.  In Kaye Almera Read's(1998) book,  Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos. Dr. Read included the poem about the Birth of the Fifth Sun.  In it the sky is blazing red for quite some time, and finally, a human, took a rabbit and threw it at the Tezcatlipoca, wrecking his face. (1998, 55. V, 55to- VI, 20)

          Somewhere in the Maya High and Lowlands, the story changed from a male Moon god to a female Moon goddess, that we now see in Justin Kerr's vase K-5166. It is God L who has had his jaw broken, but not as a Moon, instead, as Seven Macaw had his jaw damaged by Hunahpú's blowgun. So here, he seems to have acquired three names, not two: Tezcatlipoca, God L, Seven Macaw  and God N.

        Since Hunahpú and his brother, Xbalenque, not only damaged Seven Macaw's jaw with the blowgun, they were also instrument at his death, when they removed his metallic eye decorations as in K-0579 and his turquoise teeth in K-5166 above. So there is no conflict between God L and God N.

         The Moor Goddess has now taken over the markings of the blazing Sun god temporarily. She is now spotted lke Nanahuatzin  who peels off her diseased skin in Kaye Almere Read's version of The Birth of the Fifth Sun in her book: Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos. The "tossed away flesh" is akin to the sun flares that shoot out from the sun periodically today.

           The Moon glyph under the arm of the Moon Goddess has two or three circles in the curve of the moon insignia on her shoulder. The first warrior behind God L is a very red man {of fire] with a moon glyph on his shoulder. He has no circles in the curve of that moon glyph. It is possible to say there, that the event of the arrival of the Rabbit and the sun spots on the moon are in the process of occurring since it was because of a red sky that  a human tossed the rabbit at Tezcatlipoca, as he became  a dirty sooty Moon God, second to the Sun Nanahuatzin.

         The next Moon glyph carrier to the left, is a moon face  which whistles. It is similar to a bird at Rio Blanco with one raptor head facing forward and another just below on its neck, facing backwards as Ehécatl's great [comet] wind. He has four circles in the curve of his Moon glyph.

         The next man has  half of his face blackened. An indication of the burning turpentine or resin that fell as rain from the sky.  His Moon Glyph contains three circles on the curve of his Moon glyph.

         The last figure in line is a complete and happy-looking skeleton. His Moon Glyph contains seven or eight circles on the curve of his Moon glyph.

Conclusion

            Each moon glyph has a fixed number of circle on their curves. I might indicate the number of moons that occurred during the time, that particular entity was active in the sky. 

               The most surprising part of this blog spot is that God L acquired so many different names as the sky passed from one set of moon appearances to the next. It is appropriate that artists of that era were also allowed free expressions in their art styles. The modern world yet has to achieve the Maya art systems.

Thursday, March 27, 2014

A Church called Santa Prisca, Part II




Church of Santa Prisca
Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, Mexico
          Not being an astronomer, in the mathematical sense of the word, I avoided all references to the subject for years, even though, through a friend, Jan Adams, I had given a lecture or two about the stars in spite of my disbelief. 

          While looking into a list of rulers mentioned on various ancient stelae in different Maya polities, I found many of those names to be specific star descriptions. Sometimes no relatives were mentioned at all.  Yet, again I ignored the task of looking into astronomy as a research project.

          Then, one day, I was looking for an item in some of my previous work, and I realized that I was reading about glyphs and more often than not, most referred to a certain star or stellar event that had a solution to its meaning. But the definition of that event came from a source far from the Maya world and even further from Mesoamerica. 

          When I attempted to explain what I had found with others involved with Mesoamerucan astronomy, I was corrected and told I could not possibly have a solution from sources so distant from the Americas. However, the more I saw in the glyphs, the more often I saw that there were too many similarities to ignore. At times, geology or geography was implied or inferred.

          Nevertheless, I ran into more and more students of astronomy who swore that the sightings of the star locations at various temples were sacrosanct. Even the Planet Venus in the Dresden Codex was considered as the main star of the Maya, although those numbers had to be adjusted over and over agains with a great variety of calculations. Each attempt at proving the planet became more complex than the other. Why? 

          At the present time, the Church of Santa Prisca has proven itself to be something of great interest. Above the main altar is a domed cupola. It is painted with golden ribs and a blue background with an Eight-pointed star in each segment of the dome. When I looked up the word 'Prisca" in Italian, it became 'ancient' or 'previous.' Nothing to think twice about. But when I went into the Latin dictionary, it was quit a bit different.

           The Latin definition was a bit more specific: PRISCUS: as an adjective, old, ancient, old-time, old-fashioned, former,  previous; as an adverb:  In the previous fashion. The word "former" stuck out like a sore thumb. Is it possible that Sta. Prisca is also one of the former 'postiso' saints that never existed in human form. To confirm her miracle in the arena, on the side of the Summer Triangle is the constellation Leo, the lion who is often illustrated in a seated position. And sure enough, the lions of the Roman Coliseum reclined in front of the blessed saint, instead of mauling her. Hm.m.m..m. How many of the ancient gods and goddesses were nothing more than constellation stories in order to teach star locations?
Cupola of Church of Santa Prisca
          My complaint with astronomy in the Mesoamerican world is that information in the codices, the stelae, and other written records is ALWAYS considered as the Maya stars. Even when there are references with similar indications of a disaster, in other cultures, the emphasis is forever only Maya, even though the stars have always been universal outside of our world. What happens in one part of the world, also occurs in another within the twenty four hour of the calculated spin AND TILT of our orbit's star view.

        The first official description of the Great Star is found in Sahagún's translation of the Florentine Codex. It location is in the "signo del toro." Since then the constellation, Taurus and is companion star Sirius, has been targeted as the place where the Great Star was located.  I say 'was' because, if the star was a bursting nova, it no longer exists in its destructive fiery self.

           In Brazil there is an ancient cave with new wall paintings. Why do I say new?  Because many people had to repair to the caves when the deluge reached their shores. The Gulf of Mexico was hit the hardest and the waves went up and over the mountains that were in the way. Both the men of mud and the wooden manikins died in the same floor. There was no other that was so catastrophic within the Maya world or even within the records of the rest of the world. 
Brazil's Eight pointed Star with the New Milky Way
          The cave is purported to be from 5,000 years ago, however, as all caves that old, there is no reason to believe that the Milky Way incised on the walls of that cave are just as ancient. The blazing star on the cave wall is too similar in shape as the star on the cupola of the Church of Santa Prisca in Taxco, Guerrero, Mexico. Did the architect of Mexico know about the Great Star and know that its color was blue, or did he copy the cave star and put on a sky blue background to indicate that a star was the inferred image on the cupola?
Akkadian, the Eight Pointed Star
[Labat,  (1953, 13 [is] the Great star, 129 as NAB and
347, in a house.]
Egypt: Seshaet, as the Eight-pointed Star
That a special count of Eight-sided stars that appear constantly in the ancient world is not an accident. It was an observation by the astronomers of the event that literally rocked the world.

Hittite: Shala or Shalak: of the Eight-pointed Star, with many stars as her head

Marduk is in a position of breaking earth between two pillars and
 a deluge is occurring over one of them.
[grain cuneiform is associated with TU-TU the god Marduk and  URU the deluge (Labat 1952  , #58)]
Larousse, World Mythology, (1974. 68)
           Similar stars from various countries around the world, said to be more ancient than the Maya, but they were not.  They all saw the same star in the sky and used it for their appropriate governing bodies; and for their religions. There is much more to research than the little bit that I have accomplished here. Dates of antiquity were usually for the financial aids that could be acquired, and from the ego of the scholars who wanted to have discovered the oldest cultures in the world. Many dates were produced from the estimated Jewish calendar, and even Carbon 14 had that as its half-life designation. It worked for a while, but it never was as accurate as propounded.

           In the meantime, priests and friars of Taxco wanted a church for Mass and Christian celebrations, so they agreed to the stranger terms of the financiers and builders. Enough altars for the saints and several versions of Mary, the mother of God were added to take precedence over the strange altar prepared for another version of Mary, as the Virgen del Pilar. It had many scallop shells around it and it was as impressive as the other altars. But the concept came from furtherest northern location in Spain. 

          Pilgrims who went along the pilgrimage route to visit the shrine of Santiago de Complostella, many times went to the smaller church, 500 miles to the western shore where a stone boat was said to have been that which miraculously carried Santiago to that beachhead.[Encicl.Universal.1968, 297) The feast day of Nuestra Señora del Barco [y del Pilar] was October 12, Wasn't it Christopher Columbux who discovered America on October 12, 1492? (Stone,  (1927, 95-96)

          With the Great 8-pointed Star being on the cupola of a church that honors "previous times," under the guise of a Saint called Prisca, with an altar for a Pilgrimage church on the northwestern corner of Spain, whose version of Mary is Nuestra Señora del Pilar with a feast day that casually agrees with the date Columbus's landed on the shores of the New World, the Americas. It seems to make a very strong indication of subterfuge and defeating power with the need of putting up another expensive church in an area where silver ruled the area, not gold.

          Was Columbus telling the refugees who fled to the New World earlier, as "certified dead men" in the churches of the pilgrimage route. Their payment for their paid passages was to be the longitude and lattitude of wherever they found themselves. [Summers, (1974, 76)]  Their Eden was soon to be occupied by the very people who sent them from their homes in Europe? Were they to flee to the hinterlands further north? [Smithsonian, October 2008 SCIENCE & NATURE]

          What better gift could the migrant-pilgrims have given the defeated native population of Mesoamerica, than their sacred Great Star in full view of the enemy, the friars, who insisted their beliefs were stronger?  There was reciprocal feelings and protection for those who understood the importance of the Great Star. And it was another way of saying the Great Star would return in it full glory some day to bless them all for keeping the faith of their father/mother creators.
_______________
Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada, Volume LIV, p. 247, Santiago de Compostela 42° 52’ 30” North8° 32’ 0” Longitude oeste, Symbols are seven stars around chalice Tomb with an eight-pointed star.

Labat, René (1953, 129, 129-a) Marduk is also associated with the words Nab or Nap. The word Nab is written as Naab in Egyptian glyphs as a bird-headed fire god. In Mayalands, Naab is associated with salt water and the ceiba tree. Both produce a fluffy-looking substance in the tree and in the sea as floating greenish oil clumps that in fact with a firebrand or
lightning strike would create a huge fire, even when it is a small clump.

Stone, R. J. S. (1927, 95-96). The Cult of Santiago Traditions, Myths and Pilgrimages. London: Longmans, Green and Company. Coast of Death (named by Gallicians is a wild rocky wreck- strewn shore) located at Iria Flavia and Mugia (where Santiago’s body landed) near Cape Finisterre. Church of Nuestra Señora de la Barca or Our Lady of the Pillar. Barca (boat) was turned to stone.

Summers, (1974, 76) Schools of medicine and philosophy cloaking judicial astrology, divination by the stars and magic sciences at Saragossa and Toledo. University of Salamanca (XII century founded) necromancy, sorceries schooling Guazzo tells of Black arts and Magic taught, destroyed by Queen Isabella in 1451 - 1504. Morgante Maggiore by Poet Pulci 1432 - 1474 has detailed poem

[Necromancy is calling forth of the dead. If the pilgrims had their death certificates passed on to the governing authorities, and took a ship in one of the many coves along the pilgrimage route, then their fee for both the certificate and the ship's passage would have been paid by a letter from wherever they landed with the latitude and longitude of their location. In this way Alfonso X, was able to add 8,000 locations to his re-edited Ptolemy maps. His wife, Volenta was his Jewish agent in one of the hospitals along the pilgrimage road to Santiago de Compostela's shrine.]

Smithsonian magazine, October 2008 SCIENCE & NATURE The 'Secret Jews' of San Luis Valley In Colorado, the gene linked to a virulent form of breast cancer found mainly in Jewish women is discovered in Hispanic Catholics  Photographs by Scott S. Warren . It was well known that during the late Middle Ages the Jews of Spain were forced to convert to Catholicism. According to a considerable body of scholarship, some of the conversos maintained their faith in secret. After Judaism was outlawed in Spain in 1492 and Jews were expelled, some of those who stayed took their beliefs further underground. The exiles went as far as the New World.. . . . ." . . . The discovery of the 185 delAG mutation [specific to Jews in Europe] in the valley and subsequently in New Mexico hints at a different story, with its own trail of blood and persecution. . . . For 300 years, as the territory passed from Spanish to Mexican to United States hands, there was almost nothing in the historical record about crypto-Jews. Then, because of probing by younger relatives, the stories trickled out. "It was only when their suspicions were aroused decades later," Hordes writes, "that they asked their elders, who reluctantly answered, 'Eramos judíos' ('We were Jews').'