Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Friday, January 17, 2014

The God Who Traveled North

Fig. 01: Inca God from Chavin de Huantar [1] 
Today called Ophiuchus

          The golden god with the pointed hat and four serpents was the main god for many years. He holds a snake in each hand and there are two more attached to his belt. (Fig. 01) In another golden version, the same god has serpents around his head [but no body] that may indicate fire which agrees with the Aztec sun stone, where two flaming serpents surround the stone with fiery scales. 
Fig. 02. Sechin, Peru [3]
        The rainbow event is illustrated on a Sechin monolith with his three stars prominent in his now truncated trapezoid hat. His hair consists of feathers that are also a fire symbol in the north. (Fig. 02) The after-the-event rainbow element as an arc over the eye is a common glyph in the Dresden, Madrid and Paris, that are codices found in Meso-America. (Fig. 03)
Fig. 03:    Wm. Gates. #95.2 Rainbow-head Glyph
Left Bottom row
Fig. 04: Sky Storm-Rainbow Man
        Merchants passed through Ecuador and Colombia, buying and selling their ware. When they entered Meso-America, Guatemala did not seem to be part of the Inca polity, even though they probably traveled through the area easily. Even so it is in Kaminaljuyu that we find a twisted snake-like figure representing the turmoil in the sky held over a monkey-faced entity with rainbow glyphs on his arms and legs.(Fig. 04) . Stela 14  can be compared with both the stela 22 and stela 67 of Izapa. (Shown below in the Izapa section ) 
Fig. 05: Peru's version of the Turmoil in the Sky
as The Rebellion of the Artifacts
         However, the Inca version is a much simpler illustration found in 1910 by Eduard Seler in the Huaca de la Luna, of Moche and in K. Doig’s edition as Figure 459.  The caption described the fresco. It said ‘the objects are animated and [they] destroyed humanity.’ It also states that Sr. Imbelloni searched for comparable myths and discovered such myths of destruction have many variations in different regions of the Americas.  (Kauffmann Doig, 1971, 305).  (Fig. 05)
Fig. 06: El Tigre del Baul
of Guatemala
Fig. 07: El  Tigre de Chavin
de Huantar, Peru
          El Baul is located in the lowlands of Guatemala and is close enough to the Mexican border that laborers cross to work in the most productive finca in in the country. It is but a short distance off the Pan American Highway, yet it is still too small to be put on a tour map.
   El Tigre del Baul of the Maya is in residence here in the local Museum. And as can be seen, he has his counterpart in Peru at Chavin de Huantar. They are similar even to the prominent male genitals. So why are they called felines? Male cats are much most discreet about their private parts. They are probably more protective of them since all cats have sharp claws that can damage another with a sudden swipe.

Fig:  08: Izapa Stela.22
Fig. 09: Izapa Stela 67
         The turmoil of stars in the sky when the sky was raised became a different style than the monkey-man's efforts to control the sky. Different artists produce different images of any and all events. Even with today's cameras, one photographer's work will stand out as the result of an incident, and yet have nothing to do with the actual damage the event created.
          Such was the problem with the turmoil in the Maya version. Stela 22 (Fig. 08) shows serpentine forms in the sky with square eyes. Square eyes is a modismo that indicates sheer amazement. After all the Sky itself was raised by the brilliant Sun, so it was believed.
         The two Stelae have the same entity (person) in each boat; one is when the turmoil in the sky came about; and the second: After everything seemed normal again and the rainbow foretold a promising future for the survivors.
        The final Rainbow of the Izapa Stela 67  [Garth Norman]  (Fig. 09) and  in the Inca Temple Room (de la Vega, p. 117) are found on Izapa, Stela 67. This rainbow image is located behind the original golden god of the Inca. turned upside-down.(Fig. 10)
Fig. 10: God in Boat
Upside-down from Peru Version
            The angles on the serpents that are holding up the "boat" when I first measured it, was the same angles as the Izapa boats. I felt that this was the Maya version of Ophiuchus. And he is now a "happy entity in the sky" because the rainbow said it was to be so.
            It seems that the Maya were of a logical frame of mind so when the belt of the golden god became the boat, his body is cut off and placed on top of it. The dugout estuary canoe of both Stelae were hung between two serpents in the sky. The first may have been a land view of the sky since there are no clouds under the water area as in Stela 67.
         On Stela Fig. 09, the boat is in front of the rainbow (or, as in Peru, the canoe is the belt, right side-up with a serpent hanging on each side.) (Fig. 01) in order that the Maya could understand the elements of that mode of transport in the Milky Way (as per the upside-down clouds under the water) affirmed by the Sky bands in headdresses of the two water gods. (Stela 67, Fig. 09)

         An early text which names a noble woman in Mitla, near Oaxaca, was discovered by Joyce Marcus.  In it she found the name of a woman called: Xonaxi Quecuya [Princess?] of Tlaculula (Mitla? near Oaxaca). The name or title of this woman, Quecuya may be the short form of ‘Quiché Coya,’ Garcilaso de la  Vega identified ‘coya’ as a queen or ‘sister-bride’ of an Inca Emperor.
            Since all political records of the Inca were destroyed in the search for gold, one can only assume that many sister-brides of the Inca, who were not a wife or a concubine,  were groomed for [politics of] the day.
          Apparently one was sent to Mitla as a ‘silent’ ambassadress to one of their political allies. She was there in a position to inform the Inca of any back-sliding allies or of any treason intended.

           Another star form is here, probably carried to Nasca by a student of Oaxaca. I had seen a radish on page M-39c of the Madrid Codex but had ignored it completely. I was busy with the dotted star forms on either side of the Jaguar.
           This is a major problem encountered when students decide on their disciplines. Connections between Aztec, Mixtec, Maya or Inca, have little meaning even when such connections contain valid information.  
          After much searching, I found the same radish form, much to my surprise, in the Madrid Codex, the same page as noted above. It represented an earplug of a blind man whose head was in the mouth of a Jaguar. (Fig. 11) Who could have brought the radish to Peru?
Fig. 11: Madrid 39c. Blind god
in mouth of Jaguar of
the Night Sky

       The student of Oaxaca, is mentioned in the Bodley Codex. on Lam, 26 I and 25 II. (See Below) Three Dog began his journey by leaving his parents and traveling under their path to where the stars were see upside-down (south of the Equator where every star event is different from the northern climes.)
      He is accompanied by a servant called Six Tiger
Fig. 10: The Nasca Radish

Fig. 12: The Nasca journey
who carried the goddess She of the Intertwined Serpents" to whom Six Tiger offered incense constantly praying for a good journey. The two of them arrive at Sandy River on Observation Hill that might be on the Nasca Plains.

Fig. 11: The Journey
  The proof of Three Dog's origen is to be found in a modern festival, that of El Noche de los Rabanos  Several years ago (after 2003) a display at that festival showed several items done as radishes. The triangular hat of the Sechin monolith; the image of a male dog; and two interwined radishes with a text carved on them that read "The Goddess of the Intertwined Serpents."

          In conclusion, the items above are multiple, and add to the concept of inter-american transmission of not only, goldwork and women, but also of god images along the way. As for the Nasca plains, it appears that they were the training ground for measuring and triangulating the stars to earth for other unknown purposes.
         It appears that Three Dog, the student, went to learn astronomy in Nasca, Peru. The figures on the ground indicate triangulation of the stars to the ground measures. Such measurements are dedicated to the gods above and their temples are based on star positions. The stars have been changing over the centuries, so it may be that the constellations for the temples have moved. One does not know anything for sure.
          Besides the above there are also many word variations in Peru, such as Lake Poopo (de la Vega, p. 122, #3) Poopo is the name given to the Deaguardero canal (maybe as ‘Canal guards’ who may have come from Popocatepetl and given that insulting name?) Did they wear beards? (Sprague. et al, 1973) The canal leads one to Lake Titicaca. Other typical Maya items, are forehead  and head lengthening of the skull  (K. Doig p. 503) mention of Los Orejones  during the post-conquest times of Huascar, the legitimate heir. (long ears from wearing heavy ear spools?) (Ibid p/ 615) 

           Both the passage north and the passage south are well defined. There is more information available for such data, one only has to search harder for it.  The major problem is that the Conquest of all the Americas has literally been erased from the native histories, except when and where it was saved usually in plain sight.
[1] Sheppard, Barbara M. (Art Director) (1992). Incas: Lords of Gold and Glory. New York, The Time, Inc. Book Company / Time-Life Books / Robert H. Smith, Publisher, p. 158 timeline has serpent holder.with Chavin de Hauntar date of Early Horizon, 1400-400 BC

[2] Doig, F. K. (1971, 263)  Fig. 02: Arqueológia Peruana: Visión Integral
Lima, Peru: Promoción Editorial Inca, SA. Fig. 357 From Sechin, Peru, three star in hat as a triangle, feathers indicate hair (or fire, as Maya/Astec symbolism)

 [3] Gates, William, (1978, 126)  glyph number 93; All are associated with the god of death who wears the cacophonic noise of a low flying comet overhead.

[5]  Doig, F. K. (1971, 169)  Fig. 167 El  arte litico Chavin.. El felino sentaado
 Las representadas de felines son tambien en el formativo mesoamericano abundantes.

[6] El Tigre de Baul, A Cat or a Dog?

Berlitz, C. (None),Mysteries of Ancient South America Braniff Place International Travel Magazine,  p 10-12-14 Inca

Betazanos,J. d. (1987)  Suma Y narración de los Incas [1551]

Cobo, F. B. (1990)  Inca Religion and Customs  (Roland Hamilton, Trans.) Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press

Cobo, F. B. (1993)  History of the Inca Empire: An account of the Indians' customs and their origin together with a treatise on Inca Legends, history, and social institutions Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press

Chocano, J. S. (1976)  El Idilio de los Volcanoes:  Leyendas Indigenes Hispano-Americanas y Españolas] Mexico, D F,  Mexico: Pepsa Editores

Benavides-Cáceres, V. E. (1956)  Cretaceous System in Northern Peru
(Bulletin No. 108)  American Museum of Natural History, New York

Vecco, M. (2003). ChavÌn de Huántar: The Conspiracy of the Gods.
Rumbos Online, I (3), 58. ChavÌn de Huántar

Urton, Gary  (1981) At the Crossroads of the Earth and the Sky: An Andean Cosmology, Austin: University of Texas Press.
pp. 54-69 discusses related modern ideas.about the Milky Way (mayo or ‘river’)

Hay, C. L., Linton, Lothrop, Shapiro and Vaillant
(1940) The Maya and Their Neighbors, New York Chapter III, p. 426 - 427, (Bibliography: 1937 Lothrop, S. K. "Zacualpa: A Study of Ancient Quiche Artifacts (Carnegie Institute of Washington publication 472, Washington DC . 1937. Coclé, "An Archeological Study of Central Panama" (part 1, Memoirs Peabody Museum of Harvard University, Vol. 7 Cambridge) Figure 181 Table XII)  emeralds and gold from Ecuador in Coclé. South American emeralds in Mexican loot. Gold ornaments from Coclé and Colombia at Chichen Itza in Yucatan; Peruvian goldwork in Guatemala and Oaxaca in Mexico-Spondylus Shells

de Camp, L. Spague. and Catherine C. de Camp (1973)  Citadels of Mystery (formerly titled Ancient Ruins and Archaeology), (1973) New York: Ballantine Books.    Beard on sky-god Itzamná

Tbe Codex Bodley ; [can found on]