Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Friday, April 28, 2017

A 52-year Cycle?

Why a Fifty-Two Year Cycle?  


In Aztec, the names of the double comet are: Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl, the celestial dog who fell to earth to allow the "Sun" (Quetzalcoatl) to live. [In Maya myth, the Sovereign Serpent was mentioned before the Creator Father/Mother. yet, long after the vain appraisal of importance by Seven Macaw.
  
The Maya had their story of the event as the Twins, Hunahpú and Xbalenqué is an assumption that the Aztecs, began ruling other areas of the Maya, i.e. Tikal, El Zotz, Kaminaljuyu, Copan, etc, and the "Sovereign Serpent" had to replace the original Maya myth [with a reference to the Aztec version of Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl] for political reasons.

The Maya went one step farther. They created Seven Macaw as the pre-comet event, to explain why Quetzalcoatl became a rainbow serpent with the loss of his metallic eye decorations. Izapa Stela 22 and Stela 67, show before and after the arrival of the rainbow, The rainbow information seems to have come from Peru, where the rainbow had a complete room in the temple dedicated to it alone. The two-headed serpent who held up the boat of the snaggle-toothed god, but, the serpents were attached to a belt and pointing downward as the golden god of Peru, which I show here as a constellation. [yet the belt is the boat the hanging serpents are holding down; on the same boat of both Izapa stelae]

The route of this information came through the village of Kaminaljuyu. An iconic carving of a monkey-man with rainbow glyphs on his extremities, and a double-headed serpent held coiled overhead, seems to incorporate all elements of the disaster of the serpent/comet and the arrival of a rainbow element as the tale moved northward into the Maya area.

At no time, are any of the glyphs or pictures the exact same shape as drawn by the original artist in Peru, It is all well and good to trace exact variants within similar stelae in a specific area, but when the distance gets longer, the art work changes drastically.

Here one can re-evaulate the 52 year Cycle based on the Trecena 13, without understanding why the Trecena was actually used. The calculation used for the 52-year cycle is: 676 divided by 13 equals 52. 


Since the Trecena is an agricultural number and not associated with the arrival of the two comets, [on of night and the other of the day]. The calculation, as stated above, was used by an early anthropologist as "676 divided by 13 equals 52." It was a great guess. It had another purpose----one found in the Madrid Codex with the Serpent calendar pages, since proven to be highly inaccurate.

 In section[s] of those pages, the serpent[s] face backward. And each of the backward serpents have something to do with the comet arrivals; All are facing towards the left with halved figures, on the left side of the page, with the rest of the god on the right side of the previous page. This is a clear indication that the Codex was to be read to the left. Since even the Chinese once read their characters to the left, this is not a problem for any culture if they chose to do the same.

The Madrid did not finish the calendar because it could not (with four days per week) created 52 weeks for that series of days. In the last IMIX and IK columns near the very end of the calendar.. The artist failed to create the 52 weeks with the 5.25 extra days in the 365-day year. It just would not work out, either with the IMIX or with the IK as the first glyph of the "Trecena." Even the stars refused to set themselves in their old places in the sky.
 
The proof of a correct 52-year cycle came when the expected arrival of the comet in 2012 did not materialize. Actually, it had already come in 2008. It lit up Mount Rainier like a Christmas Tree. The children ran to their parents thinking that T-Rex was stomping around outside; the earth seemed to be trembling and the noise was like the "movie roars" of T-Rex. [Parents groggy with sleep thought they had slept through their alarm clocks and now were late for work: at least until they turned on the TV or radio and found out it was only a meteorite rushing across the sky.]

However, there is a great problem with the division presented above.  The 52 is designated as a group of years. Yet, the Eurasian agricultural world knows that food is produced on a yearly basis, beginning with spring, summer, autumn and winter. They followed the stars during those seasons and had crops every year----celebrating a good harvest with new clothing and new implements for their farm. Some people even built new homes during the winter season, if it was not too cold.

Why The 52-year Cycle Became a Reality

When Spain conquered the New World, the decision was made by the rulers of Spain, because the native population counted only on their fingers and maybe even used their toes there was no way they knew what a 360-day year was or when a 365-day year evolved. Only the glorious ancient Roman ruler, Julius Caesar, was supposedly capable of re-adjusting the stars by mandating a longer year of 445-days in the first century, so the seasons would realign with European farming methods.

The whole of both Americas, supposedly was only inhabited by primitive natives.  The Trecena was taken from the three sections of four circles within small triangles [Green] directly under three fire glyphs {Orange] of the two serpents on the stone.The large star between the four circles probably was meant to be a knot on the cords of a single year  [Brown].  So the 52-year cycle was a decision made for the strange stone calendar age 676-years and was thought to be very appropriate..
                   
         
                            His wife, of the great waves of water


The extra number of the Trecena,  the 13th at the end of the count, is only a repetition of the very first. It is for the continuation of the first twelve numbers and it it called in computer programming, a loop command. 

The second number of the count is necessary after the first milpa so the land should lie fallow until it can assimmilate the nutrients necessary for another good harvest  of maize. The other two years [#5 and #9] follow the same three year cycle with each new revolution of the Trecena which is based upon a farm schedule called in northern Europe, a Swidden Agricultural cycle.

The process called Swinden did not begin until the IXth century AD during the Classic Maya period. According to Karle Taube in [1983,7] in his paper titled "The Classic Maya Maize God: A Reappraisal"  [In  Fifth Round Table, Pre-Columbian Art. Ed.: Merle Greene [1985, 171-181], San Francisco, California.]                                

The raw question is "Why would farmers who always followed the stars to plant, and reap their crops ever consider a 52-year cycle, when they lived in a 52-week, 360-day world? before a major disaster struck the land.

As a theoretical question, it tells us that the formulae for computing the calendar glyphs are done in a manner which does not honor the agricultural time scale of the Trecena. The corrections can be found in the Madrid Serpent pages,  The Madrid was set up to read the Ik, Manik, Eb, Caban sequence with insertions of 19 days of 4 days per week between each of the four Trecena markers across. It was the across set, that was started in 1583 by church mandate, [whatever that was during the Inquisition] so that the across sequence failed to create 52 weeks. 

The church effort to align the mesoamerican calendar system with the european meant that 0 POP was designated as the first month of the year. IMIX was added in front of the Serpent pages  [M-12] to be the very first day of the year. As can be seen on the last page of the Serpent sequence ,[M-18] the effort to create such a pattern failed miserable. It failed mostly because no month names had ever been given, the Church decided that such names would assist researchers later to compare the two systems. As it is, The Book of the Years by Edmonson stated:

"Mixtec Month Names remain linguistically' undocumented." (1968, 211)

It may have been because there never were any months before that time in the mesoamerican calendars.  0 POP began on  July 26 of the european year but IMIX  was taken from the european date of February 8, 1583. kK, EB, Caban, Manik.

The same sequence read downwards the same way.  Both across and down weeks revolved indiviually just as the lemons and cherries on the One-armed Bandits of Gambling halls in Reno, Las Vegas and Atlantic City.  Only the vertical Trecena was more sedate. It only changed in proper sequence  from country to country:

The Trecena count  was reported by Jose Castilo-Torre who claimed he used the Imperial version: IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN. Guatemala was the first to alter the original count which is:  IK, EB. CABAN, MANIK. 

Since Guatamala's version is just a dislocated version of the assumed Imperial version and the Madrid Serpent Pages, without the IMIX, I feel that the series starting with IK is a correct ancient version.

 The Maya version is  an English transcription:  HOUSE. RABBIT, REED, and FLINT.

Landa's version is far off base, but it may have been the one used in the Yucatan. I doubt it though since the Madrid Serpent pages do combine to make a 360-day; 52-week year. It only failed when it attempted to add the IMIX and the extra "dead" days.  The Borgia Codex count succeeded because ot isolated the 260-day count of the Trecena in the middle of the 364 + 1.  It inferred that the top and bottom rows were the Saturday and Sunday of our common calendar.

Landa's version was: AKBAL, LAMAT, BEN,  Et'ZAB.  No matter which is being used, there is little done with the "Year-Bearer"s except with the Mixtec translations by John Pohl and Robert Williams.
They worked out the years with the 13 count for each of the 20 days and did years for each of the Mixtec Codices that are available.

By doing the Trecena with each group of 20-days, it makes an uneven count throughout the centuries, which probably was what Rome determined was proper at the time. That way there would be no conflict between European dates and Mesoamerican attempts at correlating the calendar with Eurasian dates.

The Madrid, if followed horizontally across the seven pages [M-12 to M-18], one can read the Trecena in the manner that it was used for Swidden farming; by leaving off the Saturday and Sunday, days of interaction with the Maya communities. It can be seen that each and every column of 20 day names rotate individually just as the One-armed Bandit" slot machines in gambling.

This allows for every day of the three years necessary to plant harvest and rejuvenate the soil is  completely different from one year to the next. In this way, for the whole three years, a farmer is able  to determine what he has to do with each of his three fields, even when they are rotate correctly.

If one needs to know the 364+ 1 days of the current 365-day year, the center of the page will give the Trecena count over eight pages, just like the Serpent pages of the Madrid. Saturdays and Sundays are festival days to be considered as community action.