Essays: Stars of Tamoanchan

Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Sunday, April 8, 2018

The "Forgotten" Moon Goddess

By D. M. Urquidi

Because the following monument has been renamed Coyolxauhque/Tlaltecuhtli, it is quite possible this icon was not meant to
be the Moon Reflected in the Lake called Texcoco. Yet, all the references
I have read recently are of the Coyolxauhque/Tlaltecuhtli goddesses,
it has been stated multiple times Coyolxauhque was thought to be the Moon, Yet, Maria Longhena, inferred “this appears to be true, [but[ it is not certain.” Another more recent study [infers] Coyolxauhque may instead be, the goddess of the Milky Way.” [Miller, M. and Taube, K. (1993. 68)] Because the Moon Goddess got lost; my purpose is to find how she got ignored and/or “forgotten.”

[a]  Ignacio Bernal (1969, pl 40b) An Olmec-type Hea                              [b] Vailliant G, (1941, pl. 56).]
      covering ] with Tears of Gold from the Eyes           

This image of an Olmec helmeted goddess with the same rounded dimensions
has three glyphs under each eye. The glyph to each eye have a “cross with four
even arms and in each of four spaces, there is a circle. The middle glyph is
partially obscured, It may be seen clearer in the second [b] view of Metztli was the name identified by George Vailliant in 1941. Yet, this monumental head,
created in the style of the Olmec boulder-sized heads wears the same type
banded helmet as the Olmec heads without glyphs for identification.

The moon’s first view appears to be a museum copy [Fig: a]. On the other
hand, Fig: b  has all the attributes of the Olmec boulder heads. Glyphs
flowing with tears directly under her eyes appear to be the same as the
single tear flowing from Coyolxauhque. However, a closer examination
of Coyolxauhque shows that the tears flow from the end of a rod, marked
with squares as if to measure distance.

When the meteorites plunged in the Atlantic Ocean, they created a “sheer
thrust” across the Gulf of Mexico as far as the San Andreas fault line in the
Gulf of Baja California.

As a result, the volcanic mountain range in central Mexico rose into
the sky. In this way, the body of the land south of the mountains was separated from
Lake Texcoco contained within the caldera of the volcano Popocatepetl. Because of the extra height of the mountain range, the Moon would
obliterate the stars reflected in the lake when the moon was in the sky.
There the Moon would reflect itself in the waters of the whole lake.

Miztztli, after her body was removed from her head, the tears from her
eyes were released into the Balsas River and then on to the Pacific
Ocean. The view of the two earplugs ends in as the knife, while her
slightly extended tongue clearly is another knife blade, just as Coatlique who has one in her mouth. Both of these goddesses had their body
removed by the barranca

          However, the lower Balsas Valley did not get chopped into pieces.
It was only a geological “sheer thrust,” as a clean-cut barranca between the volcanoes and the lowlands.
Before 1941,Metztli, the Goddess, Keeper of the Moon, the night, and thefarmers was buried together with the Sun Stone in the southwest
corner of the National Palace at the Parque Tezozomoc. Her name here
in a schema by the reconstruction archaeologists in the Scientific
American magazine, dated August, 1984 shows Coatlique buried next
to the stone of the Sun even though both the names: the Sun Stone
and Meztzli as the moon was used, as stated previously, by George
Vailiant in 1941. He did admit that the Sun Stone, even with all the day
names on it did not constitute a useable calendar system.

By 1978, Miztztli, the moon, postulated it was Coatlique who was
buried next to the Sun Stone. And again, in 1984.she was again
renamed as Coyolxauhqui, the sister of Huitzilopochtli even though
her location was on the corner in the Great Temple (1984,85)
Coatlique got lost in the shuffle because she was the central
iconic image on the Sun Stone.

The area below the volcanoes, the Balsas Valley, changed to
a different temperature zone ranging from 12.5 to 28 Centigrade.
It became the valley where “primavera nunca muere.” [Spring never
dies.] The other river of tears of Miztzli, the moon goddess, where
once one could pan for gold, was the Papaloapan
River which emptied into the Gulf of Mexico.

Two goddesses have acquired a different myth. First, Tlaltecuhtli,
the male Earthlord was also a female goddess with the same name
who was born in a burning tree. She became the mythological Mixtec
goddess who was the source of heavenly power and approval for
the dynasty of Apuala and Tilangtongo. [Bodley Codex, Lamina 1-1]

Her counterpart from the Aztec world named, Coyolxauque, had the same star myth as that of Tlaltecuhtli. The exception was that Coyolxauhque was not born in a burning tree. Instead, she was the star-sister of Huitzilopochtli. When she found her mother,Coatlicue, was pregnant but had no husband, it was her
desire to destroy her mother for her indiscretion.

So Cotollxauque and the Centzon
Huitznahua the stars of the Via Lacta//the
Milky Way] attacked her mother. Huitzilopochtli, was not yet born.
Mary Miller and Karl Taube, in 1993, in their book
The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya,
described the battle:

The Centzon Huitznahua and Cotollxauque charged Coatepec,
slicing off Coatlicue's head. Out of her truncated body leapt [sic]
Huitzilopochtli, fully formed and dressed, brandishing his Xiuhhcoatl,
with which he, in turn, dismembered his sister‘s body parts, and
tumbled them down to the foot of Coatepec. Only a few of his half-brothers managed to flee.”

Miller and Taube continued their narrative with the following information:

“. . . The head of Coyolxauhque lay at the base of the pyramid, her
image carved on the surface of a round [flat] stone. . . “

The conclusion that Coyolxauhque “might be the Moon Goddess was
already an established conclusion in other publications (1978, XI, 96) in
Newsweek, “as a lunar deity,” and by Moctizuma, Eduardo M. (1988, 42)
in his book, The Great Temple of the Aztecs, where he inferred
Coyolxauhquecould represent the moon,”

Nevertheless, both  Coyolxauhque and Tlaltecuhtli had a similar story,.
The Moon and Coatlicue were joined into one disaster, but there was
the other myth that both Coyolxauhque
and Tlaltecuhtli had been dismembered and thrown down to earth.
Their bodies were decapitated but torn apart.

Conclusion There was a clear distinction between Aztec
Coatlicue, the center of the earth with Miztztl, the Aztec Moon goddess
and the Mixtec Coyolxauque with Tlaltecuhtli. The first pair were
decapitated with one direct “sheer thrust.”  The latter two were torn
apart, head, torso, arms, and legs and thrown down to earth, ]bur only
Coyolxauhque had the Centzon Huitznaha
come down to commiserate about her bad luck in the battle.
Because of the disparity between the two pairs of goddesses,
there is no doubt that Miztzli
was, and is, the original name of the Moon Goddess.

Monday, February 26, 2018

More Madrid AKA Tro-Cortesianus Codex

The Rest of the Madridˤ Codex
D. M. Urquidi

I promised more information about the Madrid Codex or the Tro-Cortinsanus
Here is a bit that no one seems to recognize: The fact that all the human images 
from page  M-112 backward are all face the left to the left of all human figures  
relating to the bees and the carving of the wooden manikins face towards the left
of the pages including M 39 and a few in the first half of the Codex.

Where the Serpent Calendar pages have figures; some of them also turn toward
the left of the page. The whole calendar, I believe tell the complete story (with
the bees and manikins) of the disaster which rocked the world. This was an
event where, Roys, R. L. (1967) The Book of the Chilam Balam of the Chumayel
gives information spiked with Roman input. (P. 64, IMIX as First Day of the year 1584.)

What I want to do here is start at the beginning of the story and end up with the Serpent 
Calendar Pages., The Story beginning starts on page 112. It is where the blazing star
started its journey across Mesoamerica.  The strange star form with pointed sticks
as rays appear in the right column at the top of the partially destroyed glyphs and
again in the last column to the left. This star also appears on page 111. So it is in
sequence to read the codex from a “right-to-left” direction. This is also the
direction for Japan, China, Persia, Turkish, Arabia, and Hebrew.
Fig.00: The Star [not a zero] and what appears to be the human with a Star-Eye
Above both figures,e. in the glyph expo, that funny star with prongs in a glyph
for each human. of the flaming torches of the comet.
there over each human.

The man to the left appears to have a rabbit on the back of his head. The glyph above 
the figure that explains this entity appears to have the same rabbit facing the back of 
the head with its ears hanging down its back.0

The interesting thing about the two human-type entities is that they remind me
immediately about the poem “The Birth of the Fifth Sun” in Kaye Almere Read’s 
(1998, 49-58) book Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos. The expensively 
decorated Tecuiçiztecatl was chosen to be the Sun; lacking another, the diseased
Nanahuatzin was called to fill in for the Moon. Tecuiçiztecatl proved to be
a coward when he faced the “Oven” of the gods. Nanahuatzin jumped in first,
then the decorated sacrifice followed. Nanahuatzin became the sun, as he peeled off
his scabs [we call them “sun flares”] and Tecuiçiztecatl became the ashy-faced Moon.

In order to read any glyph, one must also be aware of the story behind the glyphs. 
And that one can only do by listening to the narrators, whether they be humans o
only words on paper. Allen Christenson learned that when he showed his “short-
hand” writing of the narration to the Informants and read them back with perfect
The Informants were amazed. Their quote can be found in Allen’s Popol Vuh which 
can be found on The Popol Vuh, with different names, is the entire
account of the Madrid Codex starting with M-[12 and going forward to the Trecena's
horizontal 4-work days per weeks; and five weeks per month; as well as in a vertical
calendar. for three years.

M-111a:  The left entity is cutting into an earth glyph. The right entity is doing the same.with a different type of cutting edge. Death is inferred in the glyph text over
their picture. The comet/star is also inferred by the North God C and the star-comet 
in front of his face.
The two entities are cutting the earth icon; one with a straight knife and the other 
a curved knife.

M-111b the Entity holds a serpent and a firebrand at its tail over a bee that has 
a sting on the earth glyph.

M-111-c: A death god burning bones over a broken oven [volcano?]; 
a split glyph above figure to the left and a fire glyph below it.
This entity is using a regular oven with fire
The last entity on the left has the comet/star as the first glyph over his head 
and a torch in his hand
Fig. 02: M-111
The bee gods of the sky homes are active until page M-103.
However, each page has a different sent of humanoid gods doing special things.

Try to find the eclipse tied down deer haunch and the giant feathers that indicate fire.
Maybe from a volcanic eruption[?].
The text takes you also to carving the wooden manikins and
other interesting items about the Popol Vuh. The PV does not have a volcano? Of course, it
doesn't. The Madrid is the Mixtec version

I am still working on the possibilites.

Monday, February 19, 2018

A Second Look and THIRD look:Madrid Codex

A Second Look and a THIRD Look: Madrid Codex

D. M. Urquidi

Fig. 01: First and last /^\ segment of the Serpent Calendar Pages in the Madrid Codex.
M-13 to M-18

The THIRD Look at the Madrid surprised me. I did not think I knew the glyphs well
enough to know they could be out of place. the arrow point above in Fig. 01 surprised
me since, although it is supposed to be AKBAL [tr. Night}, the lower [mouth] is not well
drawn out to fill in as an "incomplete" Akbal. It sort of looks like a reversed Kimi. I am
wondering if it is not inferring another CIMI [Kimi. The fact that it is raised above the
other glyphs and three of the dots of the serpent tail are included in the space.

This above strip of the calendar is not in my calendar pages. It is a cleaned up copy I got from
somewhere else and used it with counts of weeks, and sequencing of the glyphs.
The glyph M-48 is weird, more so, as a correction. Who did it????
The type of message to be cautious about are the two previous KIMI's.

In 2014, the first and last pages of the Serpent Calendar was what I thought I had
solved completely. Especially with the One-IMIX in the first column, together with
the two KIMI’s {Death} which appeared in columns 45 and 46. One IMIX was the
date proposed by Rome for the Maya Calendar system

The dates were pre-dated to Diego de Landa’s manuscripts dated from 1549 to-1579.
In 1978, Williams Gates published a Dover edition of his translation in a chapter
called “Yucatan,” with notes which included his note about the “common 52-year
cycle” of the Mesoamerican calendars, referred to by de Landa. I did not find it
in the translated text. It might be there, and I just did not find it, but. . . . . ?
Gates also inferred de Landa made no mention of a 30-day calendar month, even
though it was necessary to use 30-days since the year was once 360-days within
each year of 52 weeks. [Gates, (1978, Sec. XXXIV, 59)

The daily difference when the 5.24 days were added made such a small change
per day that the number of weeks stayed the same. During a year the difference
was only 0.015 of a degree per day.

So where did I go wrong? Stating that a 52-year computation is wrong is one thing,
but proving it is another. And apparently, I was unable to make a strong enough
statement with so little information.  So the thing to do next is: go the Floyd
Lounsbury’s original article and find the “if’s” and the “maybe’s,” especially, 
when there is a strong “NO” in his proposal.

Floyd left the following statement for all students to mull over and experiment
since he knew there was no verification from the Maya corpus itself. He threw in
the 52-years, in spite of the astronomy and the 350-year that he agreed with. Then
he adjusted the figures that could not or would not fit the formulae he decided upon.

“The Maya left no treatises or mathematical or astronomical methods or theories.
There is no posing of a problem, proof of a theorem, or statement of an algorithm----none
of the usual kinds of source material for the history of science, Their writing system, if
not actually prohibitive of such disquisitions was at least conducive to brevity in the
extreme. What they left are the various end products of the application of their methods.
It is up to the students to decipher what the problems were and how they have been the
methods employed in their solution…” ”...It can hardly take the form of a history of
Maya mathematics, calendars, and astronomy.”
                  Lounsbury, Floyd G.  (1978. 759) Maya Numeration, Computation, and
Calendrical Astronomy”. In. Dictionary Of Scientific Biography. New York, New York.
Charles Scribner's Sons. Volume 15, Supplement 1. 1978. P. 759-818.

In short, Floyd Lounsbury himself was the student he inferred in the above quotation.
The data that he compiled seemed to fit, except that he did not understand
 how the horizontal Serpent Calendar of the Madrid Codex used the vertical
Trecena as 4 X 3 units,
plus the fact the number repeated for the 13 instead of its number.
n short, the numbers of the vertical Trecena are:
01, 2, 3, 4---5, 6, 7, 8--- 9, 10, 11, 12---01.

The 52-week horizontal calendar in the Madrid Codex is only a workday calendar.
They are equal to our workday calendars which leave out Saturdays and Sundays.
Those two days are for personal or civil activities that cannot be accomplished
during the working days.

The only way the Serpent Calendar will mesh with the following 4-year unit, is
when the glyphs: BEN,  ET’ZNAB, AKBAL LAMAT, in that order, are
placed in the first row of the empty cartouches.

IK:         Springtime  Slash and Burning a clearing for the milpas
MANIK: Summertime Planting and caring for the milpa maize growth
EB:        Autumn time Preparing for the Harvest and storage or sale of the Maize
CAVAN: Winter time, preparing for thanks to a god and his/her helpers and for
civil celebrations.

Each if the four horizontal years must mesh with the vertical year. The best way
to understand the horizontal version is to number the beginning of each 20-day
a unit; separate each 20-day unit, by cutting them apart; then fit them back together
according to the original page drawings; noting the way each column was drawn.

One can then see better the sequences needed for milpa care to regenerate the
necessary soil nutrients for future harvests in the same plot of ground. Then
the other two 4-year vertical units are related to two other milpas to be used
following the same cycle so each plot has enough nutrients for a good harvest.

If you are not farmers or come from a 4-H family, the above sequence for
three plots of land per household may seem like overworking the system.
However, it is a very precise procedure to regenerate the necessary nutrients
from what is a very thin layer of soil on top of a stone surface.

             (More to the Madrid also called the Tro-Cortesianus Codex in the next posting.)
                                   It will begin on page 112 of the Madrid Tro-Cortesiaus Codex.