Essays: Stars of Tamoanchan

Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Monday, June 4, 2018

The 52-year Cycle: Should It Still Be Used?

The 52-year Cycle
Should It Still be Used?


        

        In order to clarify and not confuse the count of the Trecena I have only placed a quarter section of the Sun stone as an example because, under the fire glyphs of the serpent, there are three units of four bound by a star-glyph that I believe indicates the actual count of the Vertical Trecena. The number 13 is only a “loop” to make a continuous count of three separate years. I have gone as far back as the Madrid Codex to emphasis the comparisons between various translators and their beliefs about the date and story changes that turn up when they rely on current documents for their theories.

                                      ************************************
        A decision was made by Rome, after the Friars, who accompanied the soldiers to Mesoamerica, reported the natives counted on their fingers and maybe even used their toes. They then inferred there was no way the natives could have known what a 360-day/year was or when a 365-day/year evolved.
        Only the glorious ancient Roman ruler, Julius Caesar, was supposedly capable of re-adjusting the agricultural stars by mandating a longer year of 445-days in the first century, so the seasons would realign with European farming methods. This was a strange belief since the comet that changed the calendars had never appeared in Caesar’s 100 +/- BC era.
There was another Julius Caesar in the 15th century who could have created such a calendar. But was this JC too late in years to do anything about an ancient calendar system?
        Was the whole of both Americas only inhabited by primitive natives?  The Trecena was shown on the three sections directly under three fire glyphs of one of the two serpents on the stone. The large star under the four circles probably was meant to be a knot on the cords of a single year.  So the 52-year cycle was a decision made for the strange stone with four Ages of the Sun, each determined to be 676-years.
        The number 676 multiplied by 4 equals 2704 which is the square of 52. But if the numbers of the Sun Stone are only 3 X 676, then what? The answer only equals 2028. Would that mean that the 52-year cycle is only a 39-year cycle?

    


Diego de Landa (1566, 59) edited by William Gates (1937 & 1978, 59 note*)  Yucatan Before and After the Conquest, [Dover Editon]. Although the 52-year cycle is mentioned in this book, it is only in Wm, Gates’s Footnote* on pages 59-60. Gates, there stated that the Maya "never used a 30i-day month."
[My Note: Does anyone in modern offices, used a 30 or 31 day month to schedule their office hours? Or do they just use the Monday thru Friday part of the week]: It was not until de Landa died in 1579, that Rome readjusted the Mesoamerican calendars to include month names for the year 1584, [See J. Castillo-Torre (1955) for how those dates came to be.] The Madrid Codex might give more information.

Madrid Codex
a. Cortesiano  (1867, M-12 to M-19) It contains the Horizontal Serpent Trecena pages in proper English reading order (i.e. left to right) IMIX was the first column, introduced by Rome in 1583-4. It is necessary to understand why two KIMI’s were in columns 45-46.
        A KIMI or Death glyph was an indication that the ending at 52 weeks would not mesh with the Vertical Trecena, the second unit of a 4-day week, nor the third unit of a 4-day week. Yet, the Serpent pages one can also read about the myth of the Sovereign Serpent found in the Popol Vuh] by reading the figures associated with the Madrid Serpent Calendar. They are to be read Right to Left. [M-18 to M-12]

b. Troano 1866 is the original Madrid Codex starting from M-112  reading the Heavenly Bees in their homes marked with sky bands. They  represented Tlaloc’s “Burning Ash of Resin or of Turpentine” for 52 X 7 [= 364-years] on the Sun Stone to the carving of the Wooden Manikins [M-101] and Chalchuitlique’s “Water” of 52 X 6 [= 312-years] The two Ages of the Sun when added together;  the 364 plus the 312 equals 676]. These two versions of mathematics are found below in the History.

1870-1878-1883 and J. Hemry Phillips (1945, 8)  The History of the Mexicans as Told by Their Paintings. contain segments of the Codex Ramirez. It is on page 8 that verifies the above calculations: [52 X 7 and 52 X 6].  This indicates that 52 is a coefficient of 676, as is 6 + 7 which combined gives the other coefficient as 13.
        Because it is an Aztec manuscript and not a Maya one, where the names of all participants in Part I and Part II of the Popol Vuh were not an Aztec myth, the Maya story and calendars have become separate and distinct versions and are seldom connected to the Aztec/Olmec/Toltec stories.

George C. Vaillant, (1941, 1962, 75, n,1, 244; 154, 164. 165) Aztecs of Mexico, Page 75 emphasized the 52-year cycle had used the Planet Venus cycle as its confirmation. Page 154 also accommodated the 1-13 numbers without names against the 20-day names as a continuous rotating sequence over the years.  
        Page 157 detailed the same 1 to 13 numeration (see chart below for error] used within the Tonalpohualli with a different set of 159-weeks which are not connected to the 532/13 coefficient pattern..
The 52-year cycle is now established [mathematically]. Has it become incised in stone forever?  Even so, page 154 agreed with the Horizontal Trecena version for the 1 - 13-day cycle.
        Each week rotated separately but only using the 4-day names found in each week. This error of number 13 throws any Horizontal Trecena calculation out of sequence. The chart here illustrates why it does not work in four different languages.

Chart for The Trecena in four different Languages;
sing the NUMBERS ONLY creates a minor problem of one extra day at the end of three Vertical years.
      l
        Vaillant also mentioned the Calendar Stone on pages 82-3; 133-4; 139; and 188; with two versions of the Sun Stone placement: i.e the round disk and a disk above an abbreviated temple staircase. None of his pages follow the Maya Popol Vuh sequence. However, the storyline is still the same. The First and Last Ages of the Sun with the four 676 numbers are still stated contrary to the Popol Vuh version of the proper sequence..

José Castillo-Torre (1955, 98) Por La Seňal de Hunab Ku,on Page 98 in his book illustrated how the Trecena was set-up in the first set of these four names as the Vertical Trecena countdown: Ik, MANIK, EB, CABAN. The Horizontal set of the four names tell us which would start the first column of each of the 20-day units for the total of 20-day names,

        Each would combine to add up to a 52-week sequence of the Vertical Trecena within the
Horizontal version. It is then laid out on page 100, to show the true use of the number 13.----that of a “pre-computerized loop” [Noted in the above chart} so that three milpas can be rotated every three years to ensure nutrients can be restored to the previous milpas in proper order so each can have a good harvest for the fourth year of planting
.
Oscar Rueda, (1976 ) “El Secreto de la Piedra del Sol” Even though the Sun Stone was moved into the Museo Nacional de Arquoelogia E Historia in 1885, it remained only an image to be admired. In the year 1976, Oscar Rueda decided to do a complex study of all the possible measurements that could be obtained.

        In his heart he knew there had to be something special about the monumental Sun Stone, he could not quite put his finger on the underlying story of the Stone. He completed more than 18 diagrams of different vector combinations, but still did not understand what exactly the Sun Stone was inferring by its silent glyphs. The glyphs seemed to point to specific details, but, the details were not stated in any particular order.

Editor: Micheal P. Closs, (1986, 213-259)  Native American Mathematics. By this time, the 52-year cycle called the “Sacred Bundle,” was found on page 222, as a firmly established numbered cycle that sequence was to be used in Mesoamerican mathematics.

Munro S. Edmonson, (1988, 20) The Book of the Year: Middle American Calendrical Systems. This author started out referring to his early sources for verifying his premises. Two statements on page 20 explained his rationale. The first: “It is not always possible to reconstruct the ‘reasons for a date that does not fit. . .

         And the second date that begins the explanation for the inferred year 679 BC:  “If Caso and Bernard (1965, 871) are right about the dating of Cuicuilco and if the inhabitants of that site used dot numerals instead of the digits of Oaxaca and Chiapas, and if this figure is read as an Olmec year, then this is the earliest calendar-round date known.”

The date was found on an earspool now at the Museo de Cuicuiloco. It reads: “679 BC, I2 IX J, or 6.3.10. 9.0 or 2 Ahau 3 CEH T (2 Lord, 19 F, Olmec.”

The next inferred year of 667 BC claimed that the Olmecs used the Type V Year Bearers which are determined by using the 1-13 down a list of days as a repeating loop through eternity. From these few pages, all the way to 1584 on page 83, every date had the year, month and the 1-13 day count applied to each year the author identified. The European calendar scholars had created coefficients and other calculus features. Even though the earliest AD/BC years that had no month names until 1583-4.

Thereafter, from the above pages to the 1584 date to page 83, there are various reasons why the dates do not agree with the computations known to present scholars. The excuses run from transcription errors to dates calculated to 23 years earlier OR one that was 27 years later; OR native scribal errors.

A statement on page 211 gave a statement that might have explained the Mixtec reason:

month names remain linguistically undocumented.”

        When Rome, in 1583, did send the new Calendar month names, the First day of the first month was taken from an odd source. It is necessary for this study to refer to the Records of José Castillo-Torres for the Imperial Era. He stated on page 193 that Rome took 0-POP from July 26  and 01-IMIX from February 8th. That means there was a 6-month difference between the first-day IMIX of the first month and the first-month name POP placed in July; This was a great way to obscure date comparisons.

        He also stated in detail on page 97, how the Horizontal Trecena applied to the agricultural cycle. First was choosing the milpa to be denuded of the brush; Second was the burning of the larger vegetation like trees; Third was planting the seeds in the ‘renourished land’ and lastly, the harvest and celebrations.for the new year: [assuming December 21 when the end of autumn occurred.]

        The above statements call out for yet another author for verification.

Sylvanus Griswold Morley, (1946-1947-1956, 220-21). The Ancient Maya, Third edition. Since this book had been around quite a few years, why was this following quote ignored?

        Native Maya Calendar Makers, after much discussion, decided:

Let us permit our calendar to gain on the true year; as fast as it will. We will allow our calendar to function without change, but when we erect a monument, we will engrave upon it, in addition to the official calendar, date of its dedication, a calendar correction for that particular date. In this way, no matter what date our calendar may register, we will always know, whenever we erect a monument, the position of its corresponding date in the true year.

        The adjustment mentioned would be the Distance Numbers which follow the normal Maya Calendar notation method. 1.0.0.0.0.  On page 235, Morley also laid out the Classic Era Year Bearers: IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN for the full 13 numeric count; ending with number 13 reading: IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN. Just like my chart. I may have read it previously, but I do not remember reading since I was not interested in the dates at the time I bought the book.

        The use of the Trecena against the day names as a continuous cycle,  and using month names that did not exist before 1584 is a major problem when calculating dates that had no month names nor a 13-day count.

John Bierhorsta (1992,26) History and Mythology of the Aztecs: The Codex Chimalpopoca, This book is basically history based upon the myths connected with the Sun Stone and the Sovereign Serpent’s arrival.
        The stone representing the four Ages of the Sun found on page 26:
                  FIrst: the Age of 4-Water;           
                  Second: the Age of 4-Jaguar;
                  Third: the Age of 4 Rain;      and
                  Fourth: the Age of 4-Wind.    

        Even though the Ages of the Sun were laid out very clearly at the INAH Museum. INAH began with the Age of the Jaguars, Second was the Age of Tlaloc’s Fire [Ash] Rain; Third was Chalchuitlique’s Age of Water and lastly, the Age of the Wind, Each of the Ages was given the number of “years” as 676.                                                             Yet, both versions were incorrect.

        Comet occurrences recorded in modern times indicate the light and the roaring wind came first. In Russia, on February 2013, the comet came from the direction of the sun, it was not seen until it was heard roaring throughout the town destroyed windows in public buildings of Chelyabinsk, and ended at  Lake Chebar, Russia.

        This was similar to the 2008 comet 5:00 AM. People awoke from the noise and light of the comet as it roared across Mount Rainier in Washington state. They assumed, at first, that they had overslept, but the noise convinced them and their children otherwise.

        Nevertheless, even with actual comets brushing the NW corner of the United States, the Codex Ramirez, gave a different set of numbers for the four ages of the Sun. numbers for those calculated at 676, 354, 312 and 676. Since 354 and 312 equals 676; are there only Three Ages of the Sun? Leon-Portilla picked up those two odd numbers and concluded they were actual numbers of the event.

Conclusion

        My research, cross-referenced as often as I can do so, does indicate a specific consistent mis-representation of dates, dating materials, and altered story-lines. The Maya calendar was and still is an excellent calendar which can be used jointly with other calendars in the known world.

        The 52-year cycle was and still is a computer calculation. When the 676 was divided by 13, the answer was 52.  And if it had been divided by 52, the answer would be 13. No one considered that 52 X 7 or 52 X 6 would actually be informing us that those numbers hold the two coefficient of 676. Hence, the Trecena became a yearly calculation in error.

        The Popol Vuh of the Maya and The Chumayel of the Maya had determined that the Wind had to come first because the Sun Stone was representing the Day and Night Comet that almost destroyed the Maya world.

        This agrees with records of modern comet arrivals: i.e. the comet of 2008 that flew over Mount Rainier in Washington state and that of February of 2013 in Chelyabinsk, Russia, the roaring wind was the first sounds that came with the brilliance of the comet that destroyed windows in public building’ injuring many who had wanted to see what the noise and brightness was all about…. Etc.]

        So if it should be the screaming Wind; then the “Fire of Resin” or “ of Turpentine,” before the stones dropped into the sea and sent an enormous tsunami that climbed over mountains in its path. The impact of the comet also created the West Indies Islands..

        When the water subsided, people in the caves, the hungry ones, who had listened to their Astronomers, left their safe havens to begin to recover whatever they could . . . even as the Jaguars, who had also retired to caves, emerged and attacked any single person walking back to where he thought his milpas were located.  This sequence of events was more accurately recorded in the Popol Vuh. Because the Popol Vuh was not an Aztec story, it was not even considered as history for the AztecMixtec world.

        It was a bad time in recovery, but the survivors lived on to create the god called the Sovereign Serpent of the Sun Stone.  But all later researchers use the 676 for each of the four Ages of the Sun with no regard to the coefficient numbers 13 and 52 of 676.  

        Many have searched years for a coefficient to match somewhere in Floyd Lounsbury’s 819 number that was included as a MOD unit, with five different subscripted “n-#” to be pulled up when needed to find the glyph date. He used the 52-year cycle which had become set in “stone,” even though his paper was full of all his doubts about its accuracy, He felt that something might have been wrong.

        Dates and sequences had been changed with each translator. No one seemed to notice the Calendars did not get months until 1584 so those who did not look for the reason never could figure out why nothing seemed to be right.

        The Vertical Trecena could never be meshed with the Horizontal because of the added IMIX column, even though the Madrid Codex put into columns 45 and 46 a KIMI [Cimi] glyph to warn any reader to triple check their information.

        As a final note, the extra number of the Trecena,  the 13th at the end of the count, is only a repetition of the very first. It was for the continuation of the first twelve numbers; which can be seen in the Calendar Stone as four points, bound by what may be a star glyph. [Modern computer programming,  call it “a loop” command.]

        The first set of the four names in the count was necessary so that the first milpa should lie fallow until it could assimilate the nutrients from the burned land; a necessary downtime for a good harvest of maize.

        The next two years segments [beginning with numbers #5 and #9] follow the same four-year cycle with each new revolution of the Trecena. In northern Europe, such a method was based upon an Agricultural schedule called Swidden. This “slash-and-burn method was used extensively in Sweden, Norway and in Saxon England.

        The process called Swinden did not begin during the Classic Maya period until the IXth century AD, according to Karle Taube in [1983,7] in his paper titled "The Classic Maya Maize God: A Reappraisal"  [In Fifth Round Table, Pre-Columbian Art. Ed.: Merle Greene [1985, 171-181], San Francisco, California.]
              
        The main question is "Why would farmers who always followed the stars to plant, and reap their crops ever consider a 52-year cycle, when they lived in a  6-day/week; 52-weeks/year; 360-day/world before that double comet disaster struck the land?

        The Madrid was set up to read the IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN sequence with insertions of 4-days per week between each of the four 13-Trecena markers across. It was the IMIX introduced by Rome, that started in 1583 so that the Horizontal sequence failed to mesh correctly with the final Vertical set of 4-days a week of the 52-week Horizontal version.

        The church effort to align the Mesoamerican calendar system with the European meant that 0-POP was designated as the first month of the year. IMIX was added in front of the Serpent pages on [M-12] to be the very first day of the year. As can be seen on the last page of the Serpent sequence [M-18] the effort to create such a pattern failed miserably.

        It failed mostly because no month names had ever been given until Rome decided that such names would assist researchers later to compare the two systems. As it is, The Book of the Years by Edmonson stated:
"Mixtec Month Names remain linguistically' undocumented." (1968, 211)

        It may have been because there never were any months before that time in Mesoamerican Calendars. 0-POP began on July 26 of the European year, as was IMIX taken from the European date of February 8, 1583.  IK, MANIK, EB, CABAN was no longer valid.

        THE 3-year  SWIDDEN “SLASH AND BURN” CYCLE OF THE Madrid Codex HAS BEEN IGNORED, as was the 13/52 coefficients of the 676 number for the Ages of the Sun.

Thursday, May 17, 2018

A Note or Two About Pacal, as a Physician.

Date: Thu, 17 May 2018 11:17:58 -0500

Subject: Found
Pacal - as ridiculed, and insulted
the word in Nahuatl is Papac[a] = to ridicule, insult someone, baldonar una mujer o otra.
Patilia = to change or misdirect someone.
Pahtilia = to cure someone
Patlanaltilo = to make someone fly (volar) (this refers to the Maya kites of 20 ribs also found with the Maori i New Zealand. (used to impress natives after landing after a big storm that almost wrecked their ship that held with 80 families.)
Huapaltlapacaloni =  a wooden trough.   (for water demanded by Pacal to wash wounds possibly)

The book is by Frances Kartunen. a woman. (1983) An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl.
It took me three days to go through the book page by page,.
A lot of words with PAN and PAH  near the end of words referred to medicines and to herbs
used as medicines.  Pacal, who could not be a ruler because he had no family in Palenque, had a son who was a ruler after him.

Sunday, April 8, 2018

The "Forgotten" Moon Goddess


By D. M. Urquidi

Abstract
Because the following monument has been renamed Coyolxauhque/Tlaltecuhtli, it is quite possible this icon was not meant to
be the Moon Reflected in the Lake called Texcoco. Yet, all the references
I have read recently are of the Coyolxauhque/Tlaltecuhtli goddesses,
it has been stated multiple times Coyolxauhque was thought to be the Moon, Yet, Maria Longhena, inferred “this appears to be true, [but[ it is not certain.” Another more recent study [infers] Coyolxauhque may instead be, the goddess of the Milky Way.” [Miller, M. and Taube, K. (1993. 68)] Because the Moon Goddess got lost; my purpose is to find how she got ignored and/or “forgotten.”
                                                                                                               


[a]  Ignacio Bernal (1969, pl 40b) An Olmec-type Hea                              [b] Vailliant G, (1941, pl. 56).]
      covering ] with Tears of Gold from the Eyes           


This image of an Olmec helmeted goddess with the same rounded dimensions
has three glyphs under each eye. The glyph to each eye have a “cross with four
even arms and in each of four spaces, there is a circle. The middle glyph is
partially obscured, It may be seen clearer in the second [b] view of Metztli was the name identified by George Vailliant in 1941. Yet, this monumental head,
created in the style of the Olmec boulder-sized heads wears the same type
banded helmet as the Olmec heads without glyphs for identification.


The moon’s first view appears to be a museum copy [Fig: a]. On the other
hand, Fig: b  has all the attributes of the Olmec boulder heads. Glyphs
flowing with tears directly under her eyes appear to be the same as the
single tear flowing from Coyolxauhque. However, a closer examination
of Coyolxauhque shows that the tears flow from the end of a rod, marked
with squares as if to measure distance.


When the meteorites plunged in the Atlantic Ocean, they created a “sheer
thrust” across the Gulf of Mexico as far as the San Andreas fault line in the
Gulf of Baja California.


As a result, the volcanic mountain range in central Mexico rose into
the sky. In this way, the body of the land south of the mountains was separated from
Lake Texcoco contained within the caldera of the volcano Popocatepetl. Because of the extra height of the mountain range, the Moon would
obliterate the stars reflected in the lake when the moon was in the sky.
There the Moon would reflect itself in the waters of the whole lake.


Miztztli, after her body was removed from her head, the tears from her
eyes were released into the Balsas River and then on to the Pacific
Ocean. The view of the two earplugs ends in as the knife, while her
slightly extended tongue clearly is another knife blade, just as Coatlique who has one in her mouth. Both of these goddesses had their body
removed by the barranca

          However, the lower Balsas Valley did not get chopped into pieces.
It was only a geological “sheer thrust,” as a clean-cut barranca between the volcanoes and the lowlands.
 
Before 1941,Metztli, the Goddess, Keeper of the Moon, the night, and thefarmers was buried together with the Sun Stone in the southwest
corner of the National Palace at the Parque Tezozomoc. Her name here
in a schema by the reconstruction archaeologists in the Scientific
American magazine, dated August, 1984 shows Coatlique buried next
to the stone of the Sun even though both the names: the Sun Stone
and Meztzli as the moon was used, as stated previously, by George
Vailiant in 1941. He did admit that the Sun Stone, even with all the day
names on it did not constitute a useable calendar system.


By 1978, Miztztli, the moon, postulated it was Coatlique who was
buried next to the Sun Stone. And again, in 1984.she was again
renamed as Coyolxauhqui, the sister of Huitzilopochtli even though
her location was on the corner in the Great Temple (1984,85)
Coatlique got lost in the shuffle because she was the central
iconic image on the Sun Stone.


The area below the volcanoes, the Balsas Valley, changed to
a different temperature zone ranging from 12.5 to 28 Centigrade.
It became the valley where “primavera nunca muere.” [Spring never
dies.] The other river of tears of Miztzli, the moon goddess, where
once one could pan for gold, was the Papaloapan
River which emptied into the Gulf of Mexico.


Two goddesses have acquired a different myth. First, Tlaltecuhtli,
the male Earthlord was also a female goddess with the same name
who was born in a burning tree. She became the mythological Mixtec
goddess who was the source of heavenly power and approval for
the dynasty of Apuala and Tilangtongo. [Bodley Codex, Lamina 1-1]


Her counterpart from the Aztec world named, Coyolxauque, had the same star myth as that of Tlaltecuhtli. The exception was that Coyolxauhque was not born in a burning tree. Instead, she was the star-sister of Huitzilopochtli. When she found her mother,Coatlicue, was pregnant but had no husband, it was her
desire to destroy her mother for her indiscretion.


So Cotollxauque and the Centzon
Huitznahua the stars of the Via Lacta//the
Milky Way] attacked her mother. Huitzilopochtli, was not yet born.
Mary Miller and Karl Taube, in 1993, in their book
The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya,
described the battle:


The Centzon Huitznahua and Cotollxauque charged Coatepec,
slicing off Coatlicue's head. Out of her truncated body leapt [sic]
Huitzilopochtli, fully formed and dressed, brandishing his Xiuhhcoatl,
with which he, in turn, dismembered his sister‘s body parts, and
tumbled them down to the foot of Coatepec. Only a few of his half-brothers managed to flee.”


Miller and Taube continued their narrative with the following information:


“. . . The head of Coyolxauhque lay at the base of the pyramid, her
image carved on the surface of a round [flat] stone. . . “


The conclusion that Coyolxauhque “might be the Moon Goddess was
already an established conclusion in other publications (1978, XI, 96) in
Newsweek, “as a lunar deity,” and by Moctizuma, Eduardo M. (1988, 42)
in his book, The Great Temple of the Aztecs, where he inferred
Coyolxauhquecould represent the moon,”


Nevertheless, both  Coyolxauhque and Tlaltecuhtli had a similar story,.
The Moon and Coatlicue were joined into one disaster, but there was
the other myth that both Coyolxauhque
and Tlaltecuhtli had been dismembered and thrown down to earth.
Their bodies were decapitated but torn apart.

Conclusion There was a clear distinction between Aztec
Coatlicue, the center of the earth with Miztztl, the Aztec Moon goddess
and the Mixtec Coyolxauque with Tlaltecuhtli. The first pair were
decapitated with one direct “sheer thrust.”  The latter two were torn
apart, head, torso, arms, and legs and thrown down to earth, ]bur only
Coyolxauhque had the Centzon Huitznaha
come down to commiserate about her bad luck in the battle.
Because of the disparity between the two pairs of goddesses,
there is no doubt that Miztzli
was, and is, the original name of the Moon Goddess.