Clay bulla and the commoditiy tokens that were inside it.
The owner’s seal is faintly visible on the exterior of the bulla.
The Sumerian Shakespeare
A long time ago, while researching the Great Migration across Asia to Spain, I ran across what was thought to be "The Origin of Writing," [actually this was an accomplishment brought by the gods in many different countries of the world]. It was an interesting book that claimed that there were hundreds of these items called "Bullas" or "balls" filled with iconographic clay tokens, strewn across the desert area to, within and from Turkey.
Across the seas, the Meso-Americans also had their own methods of avoiding and/or accommodating thieves, But that is another phase to be handled separately at a later date.
[Note: Don't forget to check out the University of the Aztecs, written earlier. How many of the disciplines were you able to find?]