Conflicting Essays in scholarship which have been the most engaging research job I have ever done. I have also added, over the years, queries about our "dated" geology with their "computerized" confirmations together with climate changes denied since 1963. The Ten-O'clock News have been telling us to change our clocks for DSL and back again BUT no one as noticed it has been changed, more than a few years ago, from March 31 and October 31, to a week or so earlier or even a week or so later.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

The Radish Journey Northward


  The Northern Journey of the Radish

When I was preparing my presentation about the Nasca Lines for the University of Calgary, I realized there were two long radish-like images with three lobes on the top of the greenery, on the Nascaplain. These were separated by a huge empty space.  I had seen copies of the Mixtec and Maya codices but I could not find such an image in those codices.

Many years later, as I laid out a zodiac through the astronomy website NightSkies, I found two serpents both sides of a constellation called Ophiuchus but not the radish-like configurations I had seen on the Nasca drawings.

However, I had to go to the dentist. The Nasca paper had to wait a bit. In telling the dentist about my newest sky project, he made the comment that he and his wife had gone to New Zealand. On the way back, lying home  his wife was looking out the window and commented Orion was upside-down. When asked why, she said: “Well, because the constellations we see are actually upside down south of the Equator.

In India, Praji Pata was a horned, seated constellation before the Earth shifted 23.5 degrees, Praja Patic acquired feet. I read a description of Ophiuchus in Richard Allen’s Star Names and found one of the names identified for Ophi was Orion. Another  name for it was the "blind god." So I went searching for a blind god in the Maya codices The Dresden Codex has one with three cloths, knotted over its eyes.[D-50b]

Over its had a pair of gods, one with the "sun" headdress of the God in the Land of the Dead [D'-47b]; the other, wearing a jawless skull as a headdress on his spotted, diseased body (of the sun we see every day).[D-50a] In Kaye Almere Read's poem, the Aztec version of the Birth of the Fifth Sun, this diseased sun god would peel off and throw those scabs away.  [In Astronomy, the process is known as "sun flares" often seen being blown off the face of our sun.]

Between these two glyph pictures is a text beginning with the Hand thought to have been the Moon, while from the west, came the blazing comet, carrying two gods, Tecuiçiztecatl, the ashy moon, and Nanahuatzin, the sun, as the eyes of the "venus" glyph. In Maya, these famous Twins are Hunahpú and Xbalenqué. They can be found earlier in the Dresden: as a headless Hunahpú, [In the Maya Popol Vuh. it was in the bat house of Xbalba where and when he lost his head] Here, his arms are roped; Xbalenqué behind him with the comet's rattle [noisemaker] in his hand.[D-02a].

That was easier than searching for radishes. Usually, the blind god wore a blindfold over his eyes. In the Madrid, a jaguar image was used to indicate the night time skies, where such astronomy figures are to be found. But, there is no Ophiuchus associated with the Twins.

Bingo! I found the blind god in the mouth of a huge jaguar with three deer hooves and one hand, but not with a blindfold, only with sightless eyes. On the "blind god" was a three lobed radish-like plant used as an earbob. The colored version also shows two bright fire stars (as numbers, one in front and the other in back of the jaguar..[M-39c]  Whoa! That might well indicate that the Peruvians and the Maya were in an astronomy school together.

Radishes, cabbages and other vegetables, south of the Equator are huge. Not the tiny commercially grown vegetables that we have in the states. So the placement of a radish image is justifiable. Was Nasca the “triangulation from the sky to the earth” practice area for the Peruvian astronomy school?

I wrote up the presentation along those lines, collected the pictures for it and put it on my web site after the presentation was over. I called it “The Radish.” Then I forgot about it. It was a little later when Bodley page 26 popped up. I had acquired books from John Pohl’s  class about the Bodley Codex, and started to browse through it during my lunch. Hm.m.m, John had mentioned a year sign (the A/O) that had acquired the shape of a serpent for decorative purposes only.

I got the page off my CD and blew it up in Paint and started to fill in the missing segments of the images. It is easier for me to “understand” what I am looking at, if I trace out the details . . . even if I do not draw the whole image, I get a better view of what is there that way.

I had finished the top line and was about to close the program when suddenly I “saw” the upside down star viewer the astronomers used. Oh. . . and the footprint path was white. It either meant “death” or “snow” Now where would the Maya find snow?

And why was the viewer upside down? The dentist! The constellation was upside down for the star viewer. Another tidbit of information made itself known. In Oaxaca, there is a carved radish festival every Christmas season. The radish image and Christmas would only be important if the “radish” image was associated with a god or with a star formation.

In Oaxaca, Orion was the Christmas star formation at this time, but, in Peru during the same season, Ophiuchus as the "blind " god with his two serpent figures? Where----the radish-forms were on the plain----was the Peruvian constellation Ophiuchus or Orion? A different constellation appears in the Spring time north of the Equator and was called the Summer Triangle. No wonder nothing in Maya astronomy seems to work out correctly.

 Checking my older notes, I found that Oaxaca to the Yucatan had the transmission of metallurgy from Peru. They were using such techniques for a long time.  The Bodley Codex, yes, informed the Maya of their marriage, but instead it was the story of their legal son, Three Dog. They were to send him to school in another land.

Their son was to be their personal astronomer/astrologer. For this reason, he was sent over the snow to the southern mountain government located at Nasca. The codex is telling us about the  history of student astronomers who traveled from other countries, including Mexico. to learn the fine points of star triangulation. They go to Observation Hill on Sandy River for their triangulation from sky to earth lessons.

It is probable that the Peruvians had to erase Ophiuchus from the plains and instead of the serpents, placed the “radish-like” forms because they had their own radish festival to honor of this constellation. A festival that was probably wiped out intentionally by the Inquisition as well.

As it was, Ophiuchus, the constellation that bisect the two “radish-like” images are seen and accepted as right-side up in Nasca, Peru. . . because it is directly on the equator and has a star on the top often drawn as his pointed hat AND the Peruvian view of this constellation. So that both Orion and Ophiuchus have a very similar shape. Except that Ophiuchus often is shown with a star on its chest. The main image therefore changes to a house with a pointed roof. The star is a benign star often called Good Luck. [Maybe when Seven Macaw lost his turquoise blue teeth?? But again, how did Seven Macaw get into this part of the story????]

During the time I was in Ecuador, I had no idea Naosca even existed. [When I was in Quito, Ecuador I would walk through the zocalo ["market" in Mexico] in awe of the huge vegetables in front of the farmers. I would stand near the buyers and listen to the prices, amazed. Although not expensive using US money,  They were always beyond the money in my pocket at the time.]  These veggies----the super-sized radishes----were not so different in size from those measured out on the plains of Nasca.
The Radish Festival in Oaxaca 2007
The Summer Triangle, [The Corn God, 
missing here] Three Dog and The Goddess 
of the Twisted Headdress

A harvest festival  that was probably wiped out eventually by the Inquisition as well, but later, created in Mexico as a fun thing by the homesick princess named Xonaxi Quecuya [or coya] discovered by Joyce Marcus in one of her Mixtec tax tables. The princess lived in a town called Tacolula, Mitla..[Table 7.6]

Coya is the term in Peru for a daughter of the Sun, or a princess of the Inca ruler. 

That would explain why Oaxaca was interested  metallurgy with gold and silver from Columbia and Ecuador.. Oaxaca had the gold of the Aztecs, but not the process . . . . . until the Princess as an envoy, or as a future wife for the Oaxacan dynastic ruler in Mixtec lands. It made for a very interesting investigation. How did Three Dog's parents pay for his lessons? Why did he take the Goddess of the Twisted Headdress with him on his journey?  Many questions have to be answered before the story can be made into a real history event. H.m.m.m. . 

Thursday, February 2, 2017

The Date of 4 Ahau 8 Kumk’u as April 18, 411 AD

Naturally, 4 Ahau is a Day name, but 8 Kumk’u was never a month name until the Spanish rulers decided to create "month names" that would fit the Aztec/Maya calendar system sufficiently as to be able to correlate with the Spanish version of months/year, within the newly created months/year 1583-1584 for Nueva España as the Aztec/Maya versions of their 18 months of 20 days in a 365.25-day year. (This information can be found in The Book of the Year by Munro S. Edmonson, (1988, 178)

However, there was no great rush to teach the natives anything about the months, except the very simplified Julian Calendar.  The “month names remain linguistically undocumented.”(1988, 211) It never stopped the scholarly population from using the month names within their presentations as soon as they verified the 819 year correlation as a fixed, [although still faulty] detail. Everyone is attempting to justify the discrepancies they find.

One calculation David Stuart (2011) did was explained in The Order of Days. as 4 Ahau, 8 Kumk’u that added up to 244,9648 days, beginning with the calculation 9 x 144,000 = 1,296,000 days. (Stuart, 2011, 169).

Whoa!!!!  In the other side of the world, the same number, without the last zero, was used to make a strange statement:  The Creation of the World. Stela C and Altar Q also wrote about the Creation of the World. My, what a coincidence.

Leonardo da Vinci teased the mathematical world by attempting to square a circle.  (When all failed the math problem, da Vince decided to tell every one where to find the answer; he put a rebus at the end of his signature. (National Geographic, April/May 2015) He drew a square within a square. This told the world that he would eventually find the way to prove it was possible in Geometry. Yet, the geometry part of the problem was not 4 x 4 which would square a cube, or a rectangle;  it  was instead 129600 / 360: the number of days in a year before it became 365.25 as he knew it then; as we know it now.

Apparently, it had been decided that the native population in Nueva España would not protest, because of the superior intelligence of the Europeans. This is a nice way of saying, the natives knew nothing about calendars. [Book reading intelligence always superceded picture writing all over the world.]

David Stuart did a great job finding multiple translations [below], and his work is too good to be truncated with paraphases, so I have included it as he wrote it on page 216-219 of The Order of Days (David Stuart 2011):

a. “This  4 Ahau 8 Kumk’u date is explained in considerable detail in the inscription of a tall monument erected in the ruins of Quiriguá, Guatemala, known to archaeologists  as Stela C.”
b. “The left side begins with an Initial Series date, a Long Count, written as, 4 Ahau 8 Kumk’u. A record of the events of that momentous day comes (see page 218). In the first we find a small X-like element, which we know from Maya syntax represents the core or “root” of  a verb. There is some evidence, not completely secure as yet, that this X-sign reads jel , a word in Maya languages that might sound familiar from earlier discussions in Chapter 3 meaning “to switch” or “to change-over”.

The X-like element, David Stuart mentions above can also indicate “sky bands.” but his other translation jel,  meaning “to switch” or “to change-over” was perfect. His next question “What changed?” can be answered easily with spelling: ”image,” “form,” or “mask.”

What changed? , that is what we see in the next glyph, the subject of the verb. Here we have a sequence of two syllables k’o  and ba. In a parallel case the same glyph blocks to be spelled k’o-jo-ba, suggesting that the Quiriguá glyph is a shorted form of the word k’oj ba, perhaps pronounced and spelled sometimes as k’o-ba.  The best reading of this word, I believe, is based on the root k’oj, meaning “image, mask.” In Yucatec Mayan, the equivalent of k’ohbäil, “image, form, portrait, “ and in Ch’ol Mayan the equivalent is k’ohbäjil, with a somewhat related meaning of “head, face.” Both of these are in turn related to the widespread Mayan word k’oj, meaning “mask.” The idea of these obvious related concepts centers on the key notion that one’s head or face is what conveys one’s image and identity.  

But only if we accept the 129600 as the "face of the earth had been changed". The whole idea is that the three hearthstones were “set” at this time, explained on Stela C at Copan. And Altar Q mentions the name of one of the rulers as “Great Sun, Turtle, Macaw, Lake.”  The Great [Star comet] is locaeted in the Turtle [constellation], and also called [Seven] Macaw, at the [Lake.] Now, it could have been the name of a real person who was born during that event, or it is just the event itself personified.

The only question that is unasked and unanswered is why were there only three hearthstones? David did mention the Aztec Sun Stone at the INAH museum which he claimed is only the emblematic hieroglyph of the Fifth Sun. He did not consider dates since there seemed to be a different story with the glyphs on the stone.

In the Google blog: Stars of Tamoanchan, the Secret of the Aztec Sun Stone is explained The Blog was written as the Four Ages of the Sun for a good reason.  There are only three Ages of the Sun on the Aztec Sun Stone. Fourth Age is actually the first age; and One became the last Age. These two ages are noted by INAH as having 676 years, and the other the middle, of Tlaloc and his wife, Chalchiuhtlicue have two numbers that  add up to 676 ([Tl]364 + [Ch] 312= 676 years) (the confirmation of number of years for each "square Age" can be found in The History of the Mexicans as told by their Paintings. by Henry Phillips, Jr (1883, 8). Tlaloc produced the rains of “Resin” or “Turpentine” while his wife, who extinguished the fires with her “flood of water.”

Therefore, we are now living in the Age of the Fourth Sun, not the Fifth.  It is all Astronomy, Climatology, and Geology. The History as told in the Popol Vuh and other manuscripts should be re-evaluated.

We can return to David Stuart’s theory of dating, but that would take another long session of writing,  I think the Creation of the World, was what he was looking for, it is there for the taking.


The matching numbers can be found in a book called Xi You Ji, in the first two columns of its Introduction. Da Vinci’s square within a square is a Chinese character translated as “He who returns.” the Huihui or those from the Middle East.

Once the dates are corrected away from the 819 year correlation, one might find the exact European sequence as the Comet came three times and dropped a major stone in each of the three locations.